Chapter 5 and 6 Outline
Chapter 5 Section 1
1. Minoan Civilization
A. The palace of Knossos was the home to the royal family that included religious shrines, banquet halls, and working
areas for artists.
B. The British dug up ruins and called it Minoans, after the legendary king of Crete
C. A civilization disappears, around 1400 B.C., the Minoan civilization vanished, to this day archaeologists still don’t
know what happen to the city.
2. Rulers of Mycenae
A. The Mycenaean were an Indo-European civilization that ruled the Aegean world from 1400B.C to 1200B.C
B. The Mycenaean won the Trojan War by giving Troy a wooden horse filled with people that slipped out of the horse at
night to open the gates of Troy to let in the Greeks.
C. Scholars today believe that the Trojan War was an actual event
3. The Age of Homer
A. After Troy fell, the Mycenaean civilization soon fell to sea raiders
B. Homer was a poet who lived around the 750 B.C, he wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey
C. The Iliad is the chief source of information of the Trojan War, but the book contains stories that include gods and
goddesses, and a talking horse.
4. Looking Ahead
A. The Dorian invasion destroyed the sophisticated lifestyle of the Greeks
B. After taking a step back, the Greeks lived in small villiages
C. The stories of Crete and Mycenae become a part of Greek heritage
Chapter 5 Section 2
5. Geography: The Greek Homeland
A. The rivers helped shape the early civilization by being a source of water to irrigate crops.
B. The Greeks used the Balkan peninsula as a valley for farming.
C. The seas were a useful resource for Greece to trade with the world.
6. The Polis
A. The Greeks evolved a unique version of the city state called the polis.
B. The Greek government shifted slowly from being a monarchy to a aristocracy.
C. The Greek military grew stronger when the technology became better, and phalanx were formed to defend the city.
7. Sparta: A Nation of Soldiers
A. Spartans were Dorians who had a government with two kings and a council of elders who advised the monarchs.
B. Spartans prepared the boys at age seven for war, and the girls needed to be healthy to produce sons for wars.
C. The Spartans isolated themselves from other Greeks, which suffered in the long run because they had an inability to
8. Athens: A Limited Democracy
A. The Athenians government evolved from a monarchy to a aristocracy government.
B. Democracy slowly moved into the Athenian government.
C. Solon’s reform helped the economy of Athens by outlawing debt slavery, granted citizen ship, and gave the
Athenian assembly more say on decisions.
9. Forces for Unity
A. The Greeks were polytheistic, they believed in many gods.
B. Those who don’t speak Greek war called barbarians, which include the Phoenicians and Egyptians.
C. The Persian Empire was a big threat towards the Greeks
Chapter 5 Section 3
10. The Persian War
A. Athens became one of the wealthiest Greek city state by the 500 B.C
B. The Persian had underestimated the power of the Athenians at the ballet of Marathon.
C. Athens convinced Sparta and other Greek city-states to join forces and fight off the Persians.
11. Athens in the Age of Pericles
A. From 460 – 429 B.C. is called the age of Pericles because of his wise and skillful leader ship.
B. Perciles created a direct democracy to decide important issues.
C. Perciles rebuilt Acropolis, which the Persians had destroyed.
12. Greek against Greek
A. Athens and Sparta both had different views on government, Athens wanted a democracy and the Spartans wanted an oligarchy
B. War broke out between the Athenians and Spartan in the 431 B.C.
C. The Spartans and Persians allied to destroy Athens in the Peloponnesian War.
Chapter 5 Section 4
13. Lovers of Wisdom
A. The word philosopher means “lovers of wisdom”
B. Philosophers studied math, physics, music, and logic.
C. Sophist taught the art of speaking rhetorically.
14. Death of a Philosopher
A. Socrates was a philosopher that encouraged people to examine their deepest beliefs and ideas.
B. Socrates didn’t write any books, the information that we know about him came from his students.
C. When Socrates was 70 years of age; he was put on trail and killed.
15. Ideas about Government
A. Plato was a philosopher much like Socrates.
B. Aristotle, who was a student of Plato, developed ideas about the best kind of government.
C. Aristotle favored a single strong and virtuous leader as a type of government.
16. The Search for Beauty and Order
A. The Greek architecture has been widely admired for centuries and adopted by other civilizations.
B. Sculptures made by the Greeks showed outstanding crafts man ship.
C. The paintings that survived were on vases and other pottery.
17. Poetry and Drama
A. Greek literature began with epics of Homer and Sappho.
B. Greek drama plays first evolved from religious festivals, they were performed out doors with actors that had elaborate
C. Tragedy and Drama were composed by the Greeks.
18. The Writing of History
A. Herodotus is known to be the father of history.
B. Thucydides also wrote about history and shared same views as Herodotus did.
C. They both had similar and different views on wars.
Chapter 5 Section 5
19. Macedonian Ambitions
A. The ruler of Macedonian hired Aristotle to tutor his son before he took the throne of the kingdom.
B. Philip wanted to conquer the southern Greek city-states.
C. When Philip died, his wife put his son Alexander on the throne.
20. A Mighty Conqueror
A. Alexander was only 20 when he gained control of the Greek city-state.
B. Alexander took over the Persian Empire in 331 B.C.
C. After Alexander took over India he died of a fever.
21. The Legacy of Alexander
A. After Alexander conquered many cities across the land, the blend of cultures gradually bended in to the Greek life.
B. The city of Alexandria in Egypt had many advance and sophisticated architecture.
C. During the Hellenistic period, women had the opportunity to learn to read and write.
22. Hellenistic Civilization
A. School of philosophy and high moral standards soon emerged.
B. The Hellenistic thinkers came up with many advance mathematical and scientific formulas that are used today.
C. Hippocratic, who was a Greek physician, studied illnesses and founded new medicine.
Chapter 6 Section 1
1. The Italian Landscape
A. Rome began as a small city-stated that later took over the entire Mediterranean world.
B. Rome was easier to unify than Greece because of its location.
C. Italy had broad, fertile plains both in the north and to the west.
2. Roman Beginnings
A. Roman ancestors were Latin and had migrated into Italy by the 800 B.C.
B. The Latins settled along the Tiber River in small villages that scattered over seven low lying hills where they herded
C. The Etruscans ruled much of central Italy, the Romans learned many things fomr them such as their alphabet.
3. The Early Republic
A. Romans kicked out the Etruscan king in 509 B.C., Roman stated was formed.
B. Romans set up a republic government instead of having a monarchy.
C. In a case of war, the senate must choose a dictator to control the armies.
4. Expansion in Italy
A. The Roman army had grown to be very skilled and disciplined.
B. Roman army conquered land and forced the people to pay taxes and acknowledge their leadership.
C. The Romans built military roads that became a trading route.
5. Rivalry with Carthage
A. The Carthage was a city-state on the northern coast of Africa.
B. The Carthage and the Romans were both super powers in different areas of the Mediterranean.
C. The Romans defeated the Carthage in the Punic wars which lasted from 264 – 146 B.C.
6. War with Hannibal
A. Hannibal was an enemy of the Roman people.
B. Hannibal tried to defeat the Romans in the second Punic War but was unsuccessful.
C. Romans poised Hannibal after they let him go free from the war.
7. Ruler of the Mediterranean World
A. Romans confronted the Hellenistic rulers who had divided up the empire of Alexander the Great.
B. By 113 B.C. the Roman empire expanded from Spain to Egypt.
C. The Romans called the Mediterranean, Mare Nostrum, meaning “Our Sea”.
Chapter 6 Section 2
8. Effects of Expansion
A. After the Romans long successes, many wealthy families emerged and they bought huge estates called latifundia.
B. Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus, who were patricians, both tried to reform the Roman city by evening out the wealthy and
C. During the next 100 years the Romans fought many civil wars with each outer.
9. Caesar’s Bid for Power
A. Caesar fought against Pompey to win over absolute power over the republic power of Rome.
B. The Ides of March means March 15, which is when Caesar was killed.
C. Octavian Augustus took over Caesar’s throne and Rome.
10. Imperial Rome
A. Augustus created an efficient well trained cvili service charged with enforcing laws.
B. Augustus made the tax system more fair, took censuses, and set up a postal service.
C. Caligula and Nero, who were successors of Augustus, were downright evil and perhaps insane.
11. The Roman Peace
A. When Marcus Aurelius took over Roman, it was known as the Pax Romana, or “Roman Peace”.
B. Aurelius made Rome a trading post and attracted many people from other parts of the world.
C. Knowledge and ideas pasted easier across the Roman Empire.
12. Family and Religion
A. The men of the family had total control and power over everyone else.
B. The women have been gaining more and more freedom.
C. Everyone learned how to read and write, from rich to poor, they were taught to read and write.
13. Bread and Circuses
A. The Circus Maximus was Rome’s largest racecourse for chariots.
B. Gladiator contest were the most popular attraction, they were slaves that fought against each other and animals.
C. The government gave the Roman citizens “bread and circuses”, but the Critics warned them not to.
Chapter 6 Section 3
14. Greco-Roman Civilization
A. The Romans took and used Greek and Hellenistic ideas known as the Greco-Roman civilization.
B. Greek architecture was adapted by many future civilizations such as the English and Spanish.
C. The Romans built immense aqueducts that brought water from the hills into the cities.
15. Literature Philosophy and History
A. Virgil was a Roman writer who linked Homer’s work by telling how Aeneas escaped from Troy to find Rome.
B. Livy was a historian who roused patriotic feelings and restored traditional heroic past.
C. Philosophers also borrowed much of the Greeks philosophy.
16. Roman law
A. The Romans developed two systems of law, first was the civil law and second was the law of nations.
B. Many of the Roman laws are familiar to the ones in the United States.
C. During the Roman Empire, the rule of law fostered unity and stability
Chapter 6 Section 4
17. Jews and the Roman Empire
A. When the Romans conquered Palestine, where most of the Jews at the time lived, they tolerated the Jewish belief.
B. The Jewish reformers rejected new influences from the Romans.
C. When the Jews revolted back, the Romans crushed Jerusalem and forbid the Jews from ever coming back again.
18. The Life of Jesus
A. Jesus was a Jewish man that discovered a new religion called Christianity.
B. Jesus’ teachings were firmly rooted in Jewish traditions.
C. The Romans arrested Jesus and he was condemned to be crucified.
19. Spread of Christianity
A. At first, Christianity remained a small group within Judaism until Paul spread the word of a new faith.
B. The Romans couldn’t tolerate the Christian belief, the Romans then killed any followers of the new religion.
C. The Christian church welcomed women to join the fight against the Romans.
20. The Early Christian Church
A. Bishops, who were responsible for all the Christians in that area, gained authority above the priests.
B. The bishop of Rome became the Pope, or head of the Roman Catholic Church.
C. The Roman emperor, Constantine issued the Edict of Milan, which granted freedom of worship to all citizens.
Chapter 6 section 5
21. Empire in Crisis
A. After the Pax Romana ended, 26 emperors took the throne in a 50 year period.
B. High taxes placed on business men and farmers made them poor.
C. Poor farmer moved on rich farmers’ land and became “slaves”
22. Efforts at Reform
A. Diocletian divided the Roman Empire into two parts; he took the eastern side and appointed a co-emperor to rule the
B. Constantine built a new capital on the Bosporus, the straight that connects the Black and Mediterranean seas.
C. Diocletian and Constantine revived the economy and increased power of the government.
23. Foreign Invasions
A. The Romans lost Britain, France, and then Spain to the Germanic people who lived a longed the northern borders.
B. The Germanic peoples took over large parts of the western Roman empire.
C. The Hun invasion took over Germanics’ land and then the Germanics overtook Rome.
24. The End of Greatness
A. The Roman army lacked disciplined and loyalty, Rome hired mercenaries to defend their boarders.
B. Heavy taxes sent farmers and business men in poverty.
C. “the fall of Rome” was actually a slow process of change from one way of life to another.