The Rise of Europe
1. A Land of Great Potential
a. Germanic invaders began to create a new civilization near where Rome once stood.
b. Europe is a relatively small area although its impact and resources on the modern world has been enormous.
c. Europe had been an untouched potential of dense forests and rich black earth.
2. Germanic Kingdoms
a. The Germanic tribes that crossed Europe were farmers and herders with no cities or written law.
b. Between 400 and 700, the Germanic tribes carved up Western Europe into small kingdoms, the strongest and most successful
was the Franks.
c. In 481, under the rule of Clovis, the Franks were able to conquer the former Roman province of Gaul.
3. Islam: A New Mediterranean Power
a. Islam is a religion that emerged in Arabia in 632 and swept across the Middle East in to the Mediterranean world.
b. Muslim armies won many battles around the Mediterranean and they overran Christian kingdoms in North Africa and Spain.
c. In 732, the Frankish army led by Charles Martel defeated a Muslim army; the Muslims stopped advancing into Western Europe.
4. The Age of Charlemagne
a. Around the 800, Charlemagne built an empire reaching across France, Germany, and Italy.
b. Charlemagne was proclaimed “emperor of what was once Rome by Pope Leo III.
c. Charlemagne appointed “missi dominici” or officials to keep an eye on local regions.
5. A Revival of Learning
a. Charlemagne hoped to make his capital at Aachen a “second Rome.”
b. Charlemagne could read but not write, but he thought it would be wise to have officials that could read and write.
c. A palace school was set up in Aachen to educated future officials, it was ran by respected scholar, Alcuin.
6. Charlemagne’s Legacy
a. After Charlemagne’s death in 814, his empire soon fell apart.
b. In 843, Charlemagne’s grandsons drew up the Treaty of Verdun, which split the empire into three regions.
c. Charlemagne’s work was a lasting legacy; he set up efficient governments and spread the Christian civilization.
7. New Attacks
a. After many defeats at Tours in 732, Muslims forces kept up their pressure on Europe.
b. In the late 800s, Muslims conquered Sicily, which became a thriving center of Islamic culture.
c. Vikings were the most destructive raiders that snapped the last threads of unity in Charlemagne’s empire.
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8. A new System of Rule
a. The Vikings threaten the Muslims and Magyars, so they came up with a new system called feudalism.
b. In the feudalism system, the powerful local lords divided their large landholding among the lesser lords and in exchange
for land, these lesser lords (vassals) pledged service and loyalty to the greater lord.
c. A lord granted his vassal a fief, or estate, which can range from a few acres to hundreds of square miles.
9. Lords, Vassals, and Knights
a. Everyone had a place in feudal society, Monarchs are the top and peasants are the bottom.
b. The ranks go from Monarchs to Lords to Lesser Lords to Knights and then to Peasants.
c. A vassal usually had a liege lord to whom he owed his first loyalty.
10. The World of Warriors
a. Many nobles trained from boyhood for a future occupation as a Knight, or mounted warrior.
b. Many powerful lords fortified their homes to withstand attack form other feudal lords, these homes are called castles.
c. Noblewomen became the “lord of the manor” while her husband or father was off fighting.
11. The Manor
a. The heart of the medieval economy was the manor, or lord’s estate.
b. Most of the peasants on a manor were serfs, who were bound to the land; they shared mutual rights and responsibilities.
c. The medieval manor was a small, self sufficient world; the peasants produced almost everything they needed to live.
12. Daily Life
a. A peasant’s life was very harsh, the whole family would work from sunup to sundown on the fields, farming and tending
to the animals.
b. The peasants occasionally had vacation days on Christmas, Easter, and other holidays on the Christian calendar.
c. On the Sabbath, peasants might attend chapel, during this time period, people believed in elves, fairies, and other nature
spirits, so the Christian church built chapels where temples of ancient gods once stood.
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13. A Spiritual and Worldly Empire.
a. When Rome fell, the Christian Church split into eastern and western churches, the western church became known as the Roman
Catholic Church and grew stronger and wealthier.
b. Archbishops and bishops had their own territories, like other feudal lords.
c. Anyone who refused to obey Church laws faced a range of penalties, the most servers was excommunication.
14. The Church and Daily Life
a. To support itself, the Church required all Christians to pay a tithe.
b. The Church taught that men and women were equal before God, but on earth women were inferior to men.
c. The Church fined men who abused their wives, but they also punished women for offenses much more harshly than men.
15. Monks and Nuns
a. In about 530, a monk named Benedict founded the monastery of Monte Cassino in Italy.
b. The monasteries provided basic social services, such as being used as a hospital, orphanage, and charity center.
c. Monasteries and convents performed a vital cultural function by preserving the writings of the ancient world.
16. Hildegard of Bingen: Adviser to Popes and Kings
a. Hildegard would become a composer, writer, abbess, and adviser to great men and women after seeing a vision.
b. In 1147, Hildegard founded a new convent, near Bingen, in Germany.
c. By the early 400s, the Church had restricted most of women’s activities.
17. Reform Movements
a. The monastery at Cluny, ran by Abbot Berno, set an example for all the other monasteries by having strict rules.
b. The first order of friars, the Franciscans, was founded by a wealthy young Italian known as Francis of Assisi.
c. The Spanish reformer St. Dominic also founded a preaching order of friars to work in the larger world.
18. Jew in Western Europe
a. After the Romans expelled the Jews from Palestine, the Jews had scattered all around the Mediterranean.
b. The Christian Church charged that Jews were responsible for the death of Jesus, thus laying the foundations for anti-Semitism.
c. The Jews migrated in large numbers into Eastern Europe.
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19. An Agricultural Revolution
a. By about 800, the peasants were using new iron plows that carved deep into the heavy soil and windmills to grind grains.
b. To increase food production, feudal lords pushed peasants to clear forests, drain swamps, and reclaim wasteland for farming
c. Peasants used the three field system, in which they planted grain in the first one, legumes in the second one, and left
the third to fallow.
20. Trade Revives
a. As foreign invasions and feudal warfare declined, trade became very popular.
b. Traders and customers met at local trade fairs, where they traded and bought goods and had entertainment.
c. The merchants who set up a new town would ask the local lord for a charter, or written documents that set out the rights
and privileges of the town.
21. A Commercial Revolution
a. Merchants in need for capital spurred the growth of banking houses.
b. Merchants developed a banking systems and an insurance system to help fill their needs.
c. By 1000, a new class appeared that included merchants, traders, and artisan; this was called middle class, right in between
the nobles and the peasants.
22. Role of Guilds
a. Merchant guilds, or association, dominated life in medieval towns.
b. To become a guild member meant many years of hard work as an apprentice, or trainee.
c. In Paris, women far outnumbered men in the profitable silk and woolen guilds.
23. Looking Ahead.
a. By 1300, Western Europe was a different place from what it had been in the early middle Ages.
b. Trade flourished during this time and grew very popular.
c. New products, ideas, and technologies were invented during this time.
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24. Monarchs, Nobles, and the Church
a. The kings stood at the head of society in medieval Europe.
b. Feudal monarchs ruled their own domains but relied on vassals for military support.
c. Feudal monarchs expanded the royal domain and set up a system of royal justice that undermined feudal church courts.
25. Strong Monarchs in England
a. In 1066, the Anglo Saxon king Edward died without an heir
b. On Christmas Day 1066, Duke Williams the Conqueror, as he was called, assumed the crown of England.
c. King Henry inherited the throne in 1154, he broadened the system of royal justice
26. Evolving Traditions of Government
a. John was the successor of Henry the II, he faced three powerful enemies: King Phillip II, Pope Innocent III. And English
b. In 1215, a group of rebellious barons cornered John and forced him to sign the Magna Carta.
c. The Magna Carta stated that the nobles have certain rights and that the monarchs must obey the law.
27. Royal Success in France
a. In 987, feudal nobles called the Capetians elected Hugh Capet, the count of Paris, to fill the vacant throne of William.
b. In 1226 Louis IX, grandson of Philip Augusts, embodied the ideal of the perfect medieval monarch – generous, noble,
and devoted to justice and the rules of chivalry.
c. During the struggle with the pope, Philip rallied French support by setting up the Estates General in 1302; this body had
representatives from all three estates or classes: clergy, nobles, and townspeople.
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28. The Holy Roman Empire
a. In 936, Duke Otto I of Saxony took the title king of Germany.
b. Otto was crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 962.
c. The Holy Roman Empire had the potential to be the strongest monarchy in Europe.
29. Two Determined Rulers
a. Pope Gregory VII was determined to make the Church independent of secular rulers.
b. Pope Gregory’s ban on the practice of lay investiture brought an angry response from the Holy Roman emperor.
c. In the Concordat of Worms, it stated that the Church had the sole power to elect and invest bishops with spiritual authority.
30. New Struggles between Popes and Emperors
a. The Emperor Fredrick I, called Barbarossa, or “red beard”, dreamed of building an empire that stretched from
the Baltic to the Adriatic.
b. Fredrick the second also clashed with popes but failed like his grandfather.
c. The Holy Roman Empire grew weaker due to the increasingly independence of German nobles.
31. The Church under Innocent III
a. In the 1200s, the Roman Catholic Church reached its peak of power. Reforming popes like Gregory VII claimed the right to
depose kings and emperors.
b. In 1209, Phillip II launched a brutal crusade against the Albirgensians in southern France.
c. The Albirgensians wanted to purify the Church and return to the simple ways of early Christianity.
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32. The World in 1050
a. During Europe’s middle ages, Islam had given rise to a brilliant new civilization.
b. Indian mathematicians invented a numbering system, which Arabs adapted.
c. In Mexico, the Mayas had cleared the rain forests and built large cities dominated by towering temples.
33. The Crusades
a. By 1701, the Seljuk Turks invaded and overrun most Byzantine lands in Asia Minor.
b. The Byzantine emperor Alexius I began a crusade against the Seljuk in 1095.
c. For the next 200 years, the Christians crusaders marched, fought, and for a time occupied parts of Palestine.
34. Impact of the Crusades
a. The crusades failed in their chief goal – the conquest of the Holy Land.
b. The Crusades increased the level of trade in Europe, returning crusaders introduced fabrics, spices, and perfumes from
the Middle East to a larger market.
c. In 1271, Marco Polo set out for China with his merchant father and uncles.
35. The Crusading Spirit and the Reconquista
a. Muslims had conquered most of Spain in the 700s and carried Islamic civilization there.
b. By 1300, Christians controlled the entire Iberian Peninsula except for Granada, Muslim influence remained strong, though,
and helped shape the arts and literature of Christian Spain.
c. In 1469, Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon.
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36. Medieval Universities
a. By the 1100s, schools had sprung up around the great cathedrals to train the clergy, some later evolved into universities.
b. Students went to school from 8:00 am until 5:00 pm.
c. Since medieval universities did not have permanent buildings, classes were held in rented rooms or in the choir loft of
37. European Acquire “New” Learning
a. Many of the “new” ideas had originated in ancient Greece but had been lost to Western European after the fall
b. Aristotle taught that people should use reason to discover basic truths.
c. Thomas Aquinas wrote the Summa Theologica, which examines Christian teachings in the light of reason; faith and reason,
he concluded, existed in harmony.
38. Education for Women
a. De Pizan, who was an Italian-born woman that lived in the French Court, was a writer and she wrote The City of Ladies.
b. She asks Lady Reason, for example, whether women are less capable of learning and understanding, as men insist.
c. Men still thought that women should stay home and do house work and raise children instead of learning.
39. Medieval Literature
a. While Latin was the language of scholars and churchmen, new writings began to appear in vernacular.
b. Across Europe, people began writing down oral traditions in the vernacular.
c. Many epic writings increased during this time all over Europe.
40. Splendors in Stone.
a. About 1000, monasteries and towns built solid stone churches that reflected Roman influences.
b. About 1140, Abbot Sugar wanted to build a new abbey church at St. Denis near Paris.
c. The new churches were built in a gothic style; they towered in height and had decorative stone carvings in and out of the
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41. The Black Death
a. In the autumn of 1347, a fleet of Genoese trading ships fell sick and were dying to and unknown disease, later called the
b. The bubonic plague, a disease spread by fleas on rats, rats were very common in towns and ships so no ones really bothered
to do anything about them.
c. The plague causes the Christians to blame it on the Jews, saying that they had poisoned the wells.
42. Upheaval in the Church
a. The late middle ages brought spiritual crisis, scandal, and division to the Roman Catholic Church.
b. In 1309, Pope Clement V had moved the papal court to Avignon on the border of southern France.
c. In 1378, reformers elected their own pope to rule from Rome.
43. The Hundred Years’ War
a. Between 1337 and 1453, England and France fought a series of conflicts, known as the Hundred Years’ War.
b. At first the English won a string of victories – at Crecy in 1346, Poitiers 10 years later, and Agincourt in 1415.
c. After Joan of Arc lead the French army, they started winning battles and after her death the French took command of the
44. Looking Ahead
a. The Hundred Years’ War bought on many new changes in the common foot solider.
b. In the 1400s, as Europe recovered from the Black Death, other changes occurred.
c. Trade expanded to a very large market, Europeans usually traded with the Middle Easterners for spices, sugar, and cotton.