Annul or an annulment means to cancels. King Henry VIII begged the Pope from an annulment of this marriage with his wife
Isaac Newton came up with a theory called gravity. Gravity is the force between the planets.
A patron is a financial supporter; Lorenzo Medicis was a patron of the arts. He helped out the artists, poets, and philosophers
during his time.
Renaissance artists learned the rules of perspective, unlike the Roman artists. Perspective help make the paints seem to
be three dimensional.
A theocracy is a government run by the church leaders. John Calvin set up a theocracy in the city state of Geneva in Switzerland
John Calvin was a priest and a lawyer, who helped lead the Protestant to a Reformation of the Catholic Church. Calvinists
were the followers of Calvin; they help spread Calvin’s ideas all over Europe.
Henry VIII fought with the pope at the time for and annulment of his marriage. Henry then changed the laws through the Parliament
and appointed Thomas Crammer as archbishop so he can have an annulment.
Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci was an artist, inventor, and an anatomist. He created many drawings of the human body in fine detail;
he also painted the Mona Lisa.
Lorenzo de' Medici
Lorenzo came from the prosperous and wealthy banking family of the Medici of Florence. Lorenzo was able to aid the artists
during his time.
Niccolo Machiavelli wrote a book of his combined personal experience of politics and a guide to rulers on how to gain and
Nicolaus Copernicus proposed a heliocentric or sun-centered model of the universe. Most experts at the time rejected his
new theory, but were later proved wrong.
Humanism was an intellectual movement that occurred at the heart of the Italian Renaissance. It was based on the study of
classical culture, and worldly subjects.
An indulgence was a pardon for sins committed during a person’s lifetime. Churches sold these indulgences for money
instead of good deeds.
John Calvin believed in the idea of predestination. It is an idea that says God had long ago determined who would gain salvations.
Martin Luther came up with 95 theses of the Churches wrong doings, the Church tried to persuade him to recant, or give up
his views but he refused.
Copernicus proposed a heliocentric or sun-centered model of the universe. Most experts at the time rejected his new theory,
but were later proved wrong
Albrecht Durer was known as a German Leonardo, he studied the techniques of Italian masters then employed these methods
through the arts during his age.
Martin Luther came up with 95 theses of the Churches wrong doings and started a whole reformation on the Church.
Newton came up with a theory called gravity. Gravity is the force between the planets. He also came up with physic laws.
Francesco Petrarch was an early Renaissance humanist. He hunted down and assembled a library of Greek and Roman manuscripts.
The Renaissance was a time of creativity and change in political, social, economic, and cultural prospective. It focuses
on the physical world instead of the spiritual world like in the middle ages.
Printing of reformation
The printing press during the reformation was a crucial point for the spread of ideas. With the help of printing press,
the philosophers would not have been able to get out their ideas and new inventions.
Results of Reformation
The results of the reformation were that the philosophers were able to spread new ideas and inventions. The philosophers
created a new way of thinking which was pasted down after the Reformation ended.
Causes of Renaissance
Thinkers wanted to find a new way of life; they wanted to change the views of the government and church. The philosophers
created new ideas that were used towards changing the government for a fairer lifestyle of the citizens.
In the age of philosophy, Thomas Hobbes was an English thinker that believed people are driven by selfishness and greed.
People should give up their freedom to the government for a better country.
Locke believed have a natural right to life, liberty, and property. Rulers have a possibility to protect these rights and
people have the right to change the government.
Joseph II was the Hapsburg emperor and he accepted the enlightened despots, he disguised himself as a peasant to find out
what was he doing wrong as a ruler.
A constitutional government is a government whose power is defined and limited by law. Britain used cabinet, political parties,
and a prime minister to run the government.
Enlightened despots were the absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change. Only a few
kings accepted this new idea thought up by the philosophers.
The natural laws are the laws human nature. Scientists pondered on the thought of reasoning to discover natural law because
they believed it was possible.
John Locke believed citizens had natural rights, or rights that belonged to all humans from birth. This includes the right
to live, liberty, and property.
Physiocrats, the other English thinkers, focused on economic reforms. Like the philosophes, they looked for natural laws
to define a rational economic system.
Johann Sebastian Bach was a renowned German musical composer. He created many great musical pieces that consisted of religious
Denis Diderot was a philosopher that came up with the idea of an Encyclopedia. He spent over 25 yeahrs of hard work to produce
a 28 volume encyclopedia that sold over 20,000 copies.
Thomas Paine was an American Colonist that wanted freedom from the British. He wrote the book Common Sense, which sparked
a debate because it was so conversational.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was an enlightened thinker and he believes that people are basically good but become corrupt societies.
Robert Walpole was known to be Britain’s first prime minister. He molded the cabinets into a unified body, requiring
all members to agree on major issues.
Baroques were paintings of the Greek and Roman traditions. Baroques are known to be huge, colorful, and full of excitement.
Adam Smith argued that the free market, or the natural forces of supply and demand, should be allowed to operate and regulate
The physiocrates urged a policy of Laissez faire, allowing business to operate with little or no government interference.
Salons were informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophers, and others exchanged ideas. Salons originated
in the 1600s, when a group of noblewomen in paris began inviting a few friends to read poetry and such.
Thomas Hobbes believed that people of a country should enter into a social contract, which is an agreement by which they
gave up the state of nature for an organized society.