By: Andrew Kokanoutranon
The Old Regime: Reign of King Louis XVI (1774-1792)
Marie Antoinette- Marie Antoinette was
born November 2, 1755 in Vienna, Austria. She was the youngest
daughter of Francis I and Maria Theresa; whom were the current monarchs of the Holy Roman Empire.
Cardinal Fleury (1653-1743)- Cardinal Fleury,
who was a French Cardinal that served as the chief minister of Louis XV, made many reformations such as reorganizing finances,
building roads, and encouraging commerce.
Financial and administrative problems-
The French government was spending more money than they had, which lead to a large national debt.
Demands of the Nobility- The high classes
demanded a rich and luxurious life while the middle and lower classes suffered, and they also put a burden on the economy.
Identify "Jacques Turgot" (1727-1781)-
Jacques Turgot was a French statesmen and economic, he worked in the church,
navy and many different government posts. His major works were enshrined in the 'Reflexions Sur la formation et la distribution
Identify "Jacques Necker" (1732-1804)-
Jacques Necker was a French Statesmen and the finance minister of Louis XVI. Hhis greatest financial measures were his attempt
to fund the French debt and his establishment of incomes under the guarantee of the state.
Explain Louis Reign- Louis XVI is known
to be an awful king, by not making the right decisions at the time. He also did very little to lower the incredibly high taxes.
The Estates General (1788)
First Estate – The First Estate
consisted of the clergy who lived in prosperity and wealth, they did not have to pay taxes on their lands.
Second Estate – The Second Estate
was made up of the French nobilities. The royal family and the government were part of this estate.
Bourgeoisie - The bourgeoisie were the
middle-class of the third estate. They paid taxes, but still had a reasonable style of living; their jobs consisted of being
merchants, manufacturers, bankers, and officials
Proletariat - The proletariats were also
known as the working class, their income depended on the sales of their labor. They tended to struggle to pay their taxes.
Third Estate - The Third Estate was the
‘common people’ of France,
who made up about 98% of the French population. They were at the lowest end of the ladder; most of them lived in poverty and
Peasant life in France- The peasants’ population consisted of 4/5 of the French’s total
population, the peasant population was a staggering 26 million people living in poverty and had to pay high taxes.
Gabelle- The gabelle was a tax on salt
in France before the 1790s. The government
once taxed on all the common necessities, but limited the tax to salt only in hopes of paying off the national debt.
corv'ee- The corv'ee was a form of paying
taxes for the peasants that couldn’t pay it off with money, instead the government had them work on public projects
such as the maintaining the roads without pay.
The Middle Class- The middle class was
a part of the third estate. These people often had simple jobs and received low pay; they were also the highest population
of the estates and owned the most land.
Urban workers- The urban workers were the
people who had to work in everyday jobs in the city; they still had to pay taxes.
King Louis XVI summons the Estates General (1788)
Identify "Elections for the Estates General"-
When in 1788 the Assembly of Notables failed to solve the financial crisis of the French government, King Louis XVI ordered
elections for the States-General as his last resort.
Identify "Demands on the Monarchy"- The
demands on the monarchy included many demands that they couldn’t fore fill. Louis
was a weak ruler, and the people wanted food and the estates need power
Voting by Order- The ‘voting by order’
meant that all three estates met and voted at the same time, but before each estate would meet separately and would cast one
vote so the first two estates would win 2 to 1 every time.
The Third Estate proclaims itself to be the National Assembly (1789)
Identify "The Tennis Court Oath"- King
Louis demanded the National Assembly meet at a place that was enclosed and away from the public. They met in an indoor tennis
court where the meetings could be kept secret. At the hidden tennis court, they took the Tennis Court Oath, which was not
to leave until they gave France a constitution.
Identify "Louis XVI Versus the National
Assembly"- The change of name was done by the Third Estate to the National Assembly, they also gained political power which
threatened King Louis XVI rule.
A Paris Mob storms the Bastille (1789)
Describe what happened- At the castle,
he people, angry at high taxes and prices, stormed the Bastille and took captured the political leaders.
Jacques Necker's restoration- Jacques Necker’s
ideas included a strong tax system and a new financial reform that differed greatly from King Louis’s policy.
Jean Bailly's promotion (1736-1793) –
Jean Bailly was promoted to the president of the third estate and acted in many of the revolutionary protests.
Marquis de Lafayette's promotion (1757-1834)
- Marquis de Lafayette was a French and American revolutionist. He led many acts on both the American and French revolts.
How did the revolt affect most aristocrats?
– The aristocrats were in a state of fear after the angry mob stormed the Bastille.
The Great Fear Sweeps the French countryside (1789)
Describe- Numerous amounts of rumors spread
among the France citizens that the King’s
army would take over their lands, which caused an immense fear that swept across the nation.
Effects- Inflamed by famine and fear, the
peasants unleashed their fury on nobles who were trying to re-impose medieval dues.
The National Assembly approves the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the citizen (1789)
Describe the Declaration of the Rights
of Man- The Declaration of the Rights of Man is a document that declared all men are born free and equal. Its articles stated
the rights to freedom of speech and religion, but however, the document did not include women’s rights.
Declaration of the Rights of Women- A replica
of the Declaration of the Rights of Man, women now would have equal rights. It stated the same ideas and concepts of the ‘Man’s
version’ except for women.
Mob Action (1789) – The March on
Versailles was a protest against the King’s unfair rule
and the mobs demanded food from the King. The mob took the royal family prisoner and Louis was in captive for over three years.
Political Clubs - Political clubs were
formed by the radicals whom all had different political views. They separated into different clubs which had different opinion
on certain matters.
The Jacobins - The Jacobins were the most
famous political group during the French Revolution, became identified with extreme egalitarianism and violence. They took control of the Revolutionary government from the 1793s to mid 1794s.
The Cordeliers- This Cordeliers were a
type of club that formed during the French Revolution and was created in 1790 in order to prevent the abuse of power and violations
of the civil rights of man.
The Feuillants - The Feuillants were a
conservative political group during the French Revolution, they met in the monastery of the Feuillants, in Paris.
The Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1789)
- The National Assembly granted freedom to all religious groups, they wanted to weaken the power of the Roman Catholic Church.
By the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, the priests and other officials of the Church were put under state control.
The National Assembly enacts the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790)
The Constitution of 1791 establishes a constitutional monarchy (1791)
Necker's resignation - After the raid on
Bastille, Necker was again recalled. His last resignation came in 1791 and he spent his last years in Coppet, which was his
Mirabeau – Mirabeau was a French
revolutionary who was well-known in the early days of the French Revolution.
Mirabeau's death (1791) - Mirabeau died
because of an illness after his election to the National Assembly in 1791. He was buried as a hero because of the publics
love towards him.
Louis XVI and family flee but captured-
The royal family was forced from Versailles to the Toiletries palace in Paris. Louis lost reliability when he attempted to escape the capital in 1791he was then
caught and brought back to Paris.
Louis accepts New Constitution (Sept.
14, 1791) - The queen encouraged Louis to a policy of deception instead of the Constitution of
1791, which he had sworn to maintain.
Other reforms of the National Assembly (1791)
Abolished titles of nobility- The titles
of nobility contained a large amount of power and wealth. The nobles heavily
taxed the peasants, during the reform; the National Assembly was able to abolish these titles.
Reorganized local government- The constitution
called for 83 departments to replace the old local governments of the French provinces, the reorganization abolished the courts,
the laws were improved to protect private property, abolish guilds, and forbade city workers to organize unions.
Laissez faire principals - The laissez
faire principles stated that the government should not have to deal with the merchant’s business which made the middle
class more supportive of it.
Legislative Assembly convenes (1791-92)
Conservatives – A political group
that supported the traditional system, in the case of the French Revolution, it was a monarchy.
Moderates (centrists) – The moderates
were a political group that wanted a new system of government besides a monarchy.
Girondists - The Girondists were another
popular rival political group of the Jacobins during the early 1790s.
Mountain - Mountain was the name given
to the deputies sitting on the raised left benches in the National Convention during the French Revolution.
Intervention of Foreign Powers (1791-92)
- The European monarch's army were far more superior than that of the French's army
Austria-Prussia Alliance - The Austrian and the Prussians gained alliance after they both lost battles against
the French. They both wanted to destroy Napoleon’s Empire and take back the last lands.
France's Legislative Assembly declares war (April 20, 1792) -
The Legislative Assembly deposes King Louis XVI and calls for the election of the National Convention
Equality, Fraternity – The nobles in the Nation Assembly voted to end their special privileges and be treated the same
as a middle classmen after they saw what happened to Bastille.
Radical Takeover- The radical takeover
took place after Louis XVI was killed. The National Convention was divided between the Jacobins and the Gerondists.
Robespierre- Maximilien Robespierre was
elected to the Committee of Public Safety and he was the founder of the Reign of Terror.
Danton – George Jacques Danton was
the son of a wealthy merchant and he led a revolutionary political group, the Cordeliers Club, and he was in office during
the collapse of the monarchy.
Marat - Martat was well-known physician
who had been a strong believer in the revolution from the very start. He was subjugated and hunted down by the King’s
army and was forced to go into hiding.
Sans-culottes - The Sans-culottes were
the working class of men and women whom demanded a republic because they wanted a guaranteed living wage.
King Louis XVI is executed (1793) - He
was convicted by one vote for his actions at the convention. He and his family died by being beheaded in front of the French
The Reign of Terror begins (1793)
Committee of Public Safety- To deal with
the threats to France, the Convention
created the committee of public safety. The 12 member committee had almost absolute power as it battled to save the revolution.
Jacobins - The Jacobins were the most famous
political group during the French Revolution, became identified with extreme egalitarianism and violence. They took control of the Revolutionary government from the 1793s to the 1794s.
Republic of virtue- Robespierre believed
that France could only become a republic
of virtue if all of the criminals were to be beheaded, until he came up with the idea of using the guillotine as a way to
execute the criminals.
Justification of extreme violence- Robespierre
believed that every criminal should be executed, which changed the way of how people think because now they believed that
everyone should have to suffer because they might have done something against the law.
Revolutionary tribunal- The Revolutionary
tribunal was when the new idea came up where they believed in quick court trials, in which they would quickly sentence the
victim to death.
How many dead? - 40,000 people died during
the reign of terror, about 15% were nobles and celery, another 15% were middle classmen and the rest were peasants.
The National Convention abolishes the monarchy (1792)
The War of the First Coalition is fought
(1792-1797) – The French Revolutionaries declared war against the European monarch. They battled against the Austrians,
then the Prussians, and finally the British.
lev'ee en masse - The Committee of Public
Safety composed an army of about 800,000 soldiers in under a year in reaction to the alliance of the European monarchies
Coalition – The coalition were the
armies of the European monarchies that were allied to fight against the French army.
French military victories - The military
ended up having very few victorious battles against the coalition forces. It wasn’t until Napoleon took over when they
began winning numerous battles.
Treaty of Basel - The Treaty of Basel was
the first sign of peace from the First Coalition against France and the peace treaty ended up to lasting about eleven years before conflict began once again.
The Thermidorean Reaction ends the Reign of Terror (1794)
9 Thermidor – On July 27, 1794,
Robespierre and Saint-Just were the victims of a conspricy plotted by the committee of public safety.
Guillotine- The engine of the Terror was
the guillotine. Its fast falling blade could kill someone in an instant and was a public favorite during the reign of terror.
The National Convention drafts the Constitution of 1795 (1795)
Who controlled it? – The radicals,
the Jacobins, of the French Revolution took control of the National Assembly and formed a new legislative body called the
How was it controlled? – The Convention
had almost all the power, they abolished monarchy in France and declared
France a republic.
Council of Elders - The Council of Elders
were the imperial senates which is also known as the conservatives.
Dissolving of the National Convention –
Moderates produced yet another constitution called the Directory which had a 5 man and a two house legislature that held absolute
The Directory begins to rule France
Financial crisis – The Directory
was a weak dictatorship, they could not solve pressing problems in France,
which led to a financial crisis.
Corruption – The Directory gave Napoleon
enough power for him to crown himself as the Emperor of France and he took over the whole government.
Exhaustion – The Directory was too
weak to support France and relied too
much on the military to keep order among the citizens.
Army – The Directory’s army
was constantly in use to suppress the numerous revolts in France.