Chapter 20 – 22 Study Guide
Enclosure – The process of taking over and fencing off land formerly shared by peasant farmers. In the 1500s, rich landowners
had enclosed land to gain pastures for sheep and increased wool output.
Factories (How they worked) - Factories were places that brought together workers and machines to produce large quantities
of goods. The workers are crammed into small work places and had to work for long hours.
Turnpike - As factories sprang up and production increased, entrepreneurs needed a faster way to ship goods; some invested
in turnpikes. They were the first types of the modern day freeways.
Urbanization - The Industrial Revolution brought rapid urbanization or a movement of people to cities from the farms.
Utilitarianism – By 1800, Jeremy Bentham was preaching utilitarianism, the idea that the goal of society should be “the
greatest happiness for the greatest number” of its citizen.
Socialism – To end poverty and injustices, thinkers offered a radical solution-socialism. Under socialism, the people
as a whole rather than private individual would own and operate the “means of production”-farms, factories, and
large businesses that produced and distributed goods.
Communism – Communism is a form of socialism that sees class struggle between employers and employees as inevitable.
Proletariat – In Marx’s view, the “have-nots” were the proletariat, or the working class that included
Michael Faraday – Faraday invented the electric generator called the dynamo, the power from the generator ran machines
and lighted up whole cites.
John Wesley - In the mid-1700s, John Wesley had been the leader of a religious revival and founder the Methodist Church; he
stressed the need for a personal sense of faith.
Karl Marx – A German philosopher, condemned the ideas of the Utopians as unrealistic idealism and preferred the ways
Thomas Malthus - Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo were supporters of laissez-faire that believed the best cure for poverty
was not government relief but the unrestricted “laws of the free market.”
John Stuart Mill - Bentham’s chief follower, John Stuart Mill, also argued that actions are right if they promote happiness
and wrong if they cause pain.
James Watt – Watt improved the first version of the steam engine, he used coal as a source of power instead of water.
Abraham Darby – Darby used coal instead of wood for smelting iron, he discovered coal gave off impurities that damaged
David Ricardo - Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo were supporters of laissez-faire that believed the best cure for poverty
was not government relief but the unrestricted “laws of the free market.”
Jeremy Bentham - – By 1800, Jeremy Bentham was preaching utilitarianism, the idea that the goal of society should be
“the greatest happiness for the greatest number” of its citizen.
Robert Owen - Robert Owen was a self made industrialist that didn’t believe in child labor. He was still successful
even without the use of cheap child labor.
Britain's population growth (why did it happen?) – The agricultural revolution caused less people to work the farms
due to new improvements and inventions, so the people moved to cities for work.
Importance of coal to Industrialization – Coal was the main source of power to run factories and smelt iron goods.
Agricultural Revolution - – The agricultural revolution caused less people to work the farms due to new improvements
and inventions, so the people moved to cities for work.
Textile industry – The textile factories boomed during the revolution due to new inventions and improvements with machines
to output more goods.
Laissez faire economics (Adam Smith) - Adam Smith believed that a free market -the unregulated exchange of goods and services-
would eventually help everyone, not just the rich.
Ideology – Ideology, or system of thought and belief, plunged Europe into a period of turnmoil that lasted more than
Universal manhood suffrage – The liberals supported the principle of universal manhood suffrage, giving all adult men
the right to vote.
Autonomy – The Serbs eventually achieved autonomy, or self-rule, within the Ottoman Empire after more than 300 years.
February Days – In Feb. 1848, Louis Philippe abdicated from the throne and a group of liberals took over, the socialist
forced the government to set up national workshops to provide jobs.
Frankfurt Assembly – Throughout 1848, delegates from many German states met in the Frankfurt Assembly to create a constitution
for Germany for the whole land.
Simon Bolivar – Bolivar studied the methods of many of the great revolutionist and he led the struggle to liberate northern
South America from Spain.
Miguel Hidalgo – He was a priest in Mexico that raised a cry for freedom that would echo across the land. HE led an
army of poor mestizos and ative Americans.
Louis Kossuth – Hungarian nationalist led by Louis Kossuth demanded an independent government and also called for an
end to serfdom and a written constitution to protect basic rights.
Tupac Amaru – In 1780, Amaru organized a revolt, but a large army crushed them and captured and killed him, soon after
the Spanish king ordered an abolishment of forced Indian labor.
Louis XVIII – When the Congress of Vienna restored Louis XVIII to the French throne, he prudently issued a constitution,
the Charter of French Liberties.
John Stuart Mill - - Bentham’s chief follower, John Stuart Mill, also argued that actions are right if they promote
happiness and wrong if they cause pain.
Toussaint L' Ouverture – He was a slave in Haiti, but was lucky enough to get an education. He later led slave revolts
against the French rule.
Louis Napoleon – He was the nephew of Bonaparte and became the president of the democratic France by an overwhelming
Louis Philippe - In Feb. 1848, Louis Philippe abdicated from the throne and a group of liberals took over, the socialist forced
the government to set up national workshops to provide jobs.
Clemens Von Metternich – He was a conservative that believed monarchs should step in to defeat successful revolutions
in neighboring lands.
Pedro – The son of a Portuguese king, he became the emperor of Brazil and accepted a constitution that provided for
freedom of the press and religion as well as an elected legislature.
Revolts in Austrian empire – Nationalism was the main cause of successful revolts because sharing a common heritage
brought people of the same race together to form a separate state.
Goals of nationalists – The nationalist wanted a new way of government instead of a monarchy. Revolts against monarchies
changed the government to democracies to communism.
Conservative ideology in Europe – Conservatives wanted to keep the old way, the monarch government in rule because they
believed that a democracy or any other type of government will lead to chaos.
Interchangeable parts - To improve the efficiency of the factory system, manufacturers designed products with interchangeable
Assembly line – After the invention of interchangeable parts, manufacturers introduced another new method of production
called the assembly line.
Corporation – Large scale businesses formed giant corporations, businesses that are owned by many investors who buy
shares of stock.
Cartel – At times, a group of large corporations would form a cartel, an association to fix prices, set production quotas,
or divide up markets.
Women’s suffrage – The right for women to vote; dedicated groups emerged during the late 1800s.
Racism – Social Darwinism encouraged racism, the belief that one racial group is superior to another.
Social gospel – In Europe and the United States, Protestant churches backed the social gospel, a movement that urged
Christians to social service.
Romanticism – Wordsworth was part of a movement called romanticism and from about 1750 to 1850, romanticism shaped western
literature and arts.
Realism – Realism was an attempt to represent the world as it was, without the sentiment associated with romanticism.
Impressionism – Impressionism was a new form of painting that involved brush strokes of color side by side without blending.
Social Darwinism – Thinkers used Darwin’s ideas to promote their own beliefs about society, this became known
as social Darwinism.
Darwin – Darwin argued that all forms of life had evolved into their present state over millions of years; he also came
up with the theory of natural selection.
Joseph Lister – Lister discovered how antiseptics prevented infection and he encouraged doctors to wash their hands
Factory life (How it changed the lives of workers) – Workers in the factories suffered tremendously, they were forced
to work in unsanitary conditions and long hours for low pay.