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Andrew Kokanoutranon

Chapter 19 and 23 Study Guide
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Chapter 19 and 23 Study Guide

Ch. 19
Suffrage – The new legislative body called the National Convention give suffrage, which is the right to vote, to all the male citizens, and not just property owners.

Sans-culottes – The Sans-culottes were the working class that consisted of men and women in French cities, and they formed together and pushed the revolution into a more radical action.

Abdicate – Abdicate means to step down from power; in Napoleon’s situation, after he lost the war, he was strongly advised to step down from the throne of emperor.

Deficit spending – King Louis XIV had left France in a deep hole of national debt. The French government were spending more money than it takes in, causing a crisis.

Plebiscite – Plebiscites were ballots in which voters say yes or no to an issue. Napoleon held these plebiscites and each time the French strongly agreed with him.

Blockade – A blockade involves shutting off ports to keep people or supplies from moving in or out. Napoleon was able to set up a blockade along British ports successfully during the war.

Bourgeoisie – The Bourgeoisie were the middle classmen of the Third Estate. Their jobs consisted of prosperous bankers, merchants, and manufacturers.

Nationalism – Nationalism is an aggressive feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country. The rise of Napoleon and his victories gave the French people nationalism.

Émigré – The Émigrés were the nobles, clergy, and the others who had fled revolutionary France. Émigré reported attacks on their privileges, property, religion, and even their lives.

Louis XVI – King Louis XVI was a poor leader and king of France, causing the people to revolt and start a revolution. Soon after, he was beheaded in front of the city of Paris.

Napoleon – Napoleon was the emperor of France after the directory handed enough power to him. He was a heroic general that took over much of Europe; soon after, he was abdicated and sent to a deserted island to live out the rest of his life.

Olympe de Gouges – Gouges was a French journalist who demanded equal rights in Declaration of the Rights of Man, later the French government created a Declaration of the Rights of Women.

Robespierre – Robespierre was the leader of the Committee of Public safety, he led France into the era known as the Rein of Terror.

Jacques Louis David – David was an artist who painted images of historical events that happened during the revolution, including the tennis court oath.

Who denounced French Revolution? Why? -

Reign of Terror – The reign of terror was led by Robespierre and it lasted from 1793 to 1794. The reigns propose was to behead anyone that was against the beliefs of the National Convention.

Napoleon annexed who? – Napoleon invaded and took over parts the Netherlands, Belgium, and parts of Prussia. Napoleon was also able to destroy the Holy Roman Empire.

Congress of Vienna – The congress of Vienna were parties of European monarchs that met together to fix the problems Napoleon caused.

Ch. 23

Alexander II – Alexander II came to the throne in 1855 and gave in to reforms that were demanded by the liberals and students.

Francis Joseph – Joseph’s rule lasted all the way until 1916 into the beginning of World War I and made reforms during this time including the development of a constitution that set up a legislature.

Giuseppe Garibaldi – A longtime nationalist and an ally of Mazzini, Garibaldi wanted to create an Italian republic.

Otto von Bismarck – Bismarck was made chancellor, or prime minister, in 1866 by King William I. Within a decade, the new chancellor had used his policy of “blood and iron” to unite the German states under Prussian rule.

William II – William II took the throne of Kaiser in 1888 after his grandfather died. William’s nationalism and aggressive military stance helped increase tensions on the eve of World War I.

Camillo Cavour – He was a prime minister of a small kingdom called Sardinia. In office, he was able to reform many agricultural and economical problems.

Anarchist – In the late 1800s, Italy was in full of radicals that was against a conservative government, Socialists organized strikes while anarchist, people who want to abolish all government, turned to sabotage and violence.

Refugee – Refugees were the people who fled their homeland to seek safety else where. Under Alexander III rule, Jews sought refuge in the U.S.

Pogrom – Under the rule of Alexander III, he made persecutions against Jews and encouraged violent mob attacks on Jews, known as pogrom.

Realpolitik - Realpolitik was realistic politics based on a tough-minded evaluation of the needs of the state. Bismarck and Cavour both believed and used this political strategy.

Zemstvo – Alexander II set up local governments during his reforms; the elected assemblies, called zemstvos, were made responsible for matters such as road repair, school, and agriculture.

Economic development in Germany - Germany had a lot of iron and coal resources to improve their economy; they also built many railroads that helped the trade process.

Nationalism threatened? Who? (Which country the most) - Nationalism threatened Italy the most rather than Germany. Italians significantly dreaded nationalism because they did not want to slip back to their former lifestyle.

Revolution of 1905 – The people were unsatisfied by the Russian monarch, causing new political groups to form and take over the government.

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