UNRESOLVED PROBLEMS / notes
*National debt – Nation debt is the money owed and the deficit is the cost of interest on the owed money. To solve the
debt, a generation of Americans must suffer the consequences of spending too much.
*AIDS - AIDS means Acquired Immune Deficiency Disorder, HIV is the virus that causes AIDS in its last stage. The HIV virus
attacks the T cells and destroys the immune system.
Cause – AIDS is contracted by having unsafe sex, blood transfusion, used needles, and from “mother to child”
birth. AIDS can be dramatically limited only if people were safer and if they just think before doing anything too risky.
Affect – The virus will kill off all the T cells and destroy the immune system, which leads to a somewhat slow death.
*N. Ireland - Ireland was ruled by King Henry the 8th who broke away from the Catholic Church. The English and the Catholic
Church went to battle then the English won the battles and took over Northern Ireland.
IRA - The Irish Republican Army uses acts of terrorism to scare the British into leaving North Ireland.
The problem defined - North Ireland today has a 2/3 Protestants and a 1/3 Catholic population, and the Catholics want the
Protestants out of Ireland by almost any means necessary.
RISE OF DEMOCRATIC IDEAS/ ch. 5-6
*Minoan civilization and the importance of its location- The Minoan civilization had little to no written information of them.
They were located in the eastern Mediterranean and had access to Egypt and Mesopotamia.
*Explain how Sparta's location was important. – Sparta was located in a spot that was easy to defend from invaders.
*Trojan War- location - The Trojan War took place in present day Turkey around 1250 BC, with the Mycenaean and Troy fighting
against each other. The Mycenaean gave Troy a “Trojan horse” filled with people to open the gates of Troy so the
army can enter.
*Geography of Greece created? The geography of Greece allowed itself to be open to the trading world. The spread of ideas
and inventions moved quicker along because of its location near the ocean.
* Post Persian wars domination - After the Greeks annihilated the Persian Empire they conquered lands far into Asia and Egypt,
leading to the creation of more city states in Greece.
*Peloponnesian War - The Peloponnesian War was against the Spartans and the Athens. The Spartans won the war, allying with
the Persians, to capture Athens at a high death toll
*Greek theater origins - The Greek drama evolved out of religious festivals and were often based on popular myth and legends.
The Greeks also created tragedies and comedies.
*Alexander's achievements and empire - Alexander was a young emperor when he invaded Persia by 334 BC. Alexander captured
India and parts of Egypt, which stretch over 2,000 miles.
*center of Hellenistic world – The Hellenistic world consisted of the artist and architecture. Athens had bigger and
more abstract architecture than that of the Greeks.
*Geographic characteristics of Greece - Greece were very mountainous and had many valleys in between the mountains and hills.
They had a Mediterranean climate and many rivers following through the fertile land
*oligarchy - Oligarchy is the power is given to the business class or the elite class; the elite classes included the royal
family and such.
*democracy - Democracy is a government ran by the people instead of having one ruler. The Athens used this type of government
during Solon’s reform
*Spartan childhoods - The Spartan boys were born to fight and the girls were needed to be kept healthy to reproduce healthy
boys when they mature.
*Athens' golden age - The golden age occurred after the Persian war in Athens. The economy thrived and the government became
*Aristotle's meritocracy - Aristotle's meritocracy is an elite group of people who achieved their positions on the basis of
ability and accomplishments.
*Greek values - The Greek ideas about law, freedom, justice, and government have influenced political thinking to the present
*Augustus - He ruled over Rome from 31 BC to AD 14. Through firm but moderate policies, Augustus helped Rome recover from
the long period of civil war.
*Julius Caesar - Caesar was one of the greatest conquerors ever; he conquered much of the Asian Minor and Numidia during
his reign of power. Caesar was murdered on March 15, 44BC by enemies in the government that plotted against his ideas.
*Hannibal - Hannibal was a general of the Carthage Empire. He fought in the second Punic war against the Romans and lost,
and then he was captured and killed.
*Jesus - Jesus was a Jewish man who founded Christianity and was killed by the Romans because of his beliefs.
*Paul - Paul was a Jew from Asia Minor, who began to spread the word of Christianity. He never met Jesus in his life.
*Odoacer - Odoacer was a Germanic leader that ousted the emperor in Rome. He later took over much of the Roman land in the
*Ptolemy - Ptolemy was an astronomer – mathematician, who purposed his theory that the Earth was the center of the universe.
*Virgil - Virgil was a poet, who wrote the epic poem the Aeneid to remind his fellow Romans of their great heritage.
*martyr - Martyrs are people who were tortured and killed for their beliefs. Nero was an emperor that killed many people during
his reign because of their beliefs in different religions.
*mercenary - Mercenaries were people that were foreign soldiers serving for pay. The Romans hired mercenaries when they neared
*messiah - The Jews believed that a Messiah, or a savoir sent from God, will come down to Earth and lead them to freedom.
*patrician - The Roman government consisted of 300 senators who were patricians, or members of the land holding upper class.
*plebian - Plebeians were the farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders who made up the bulk of the population in Rome.
*aqueduct - Roman engineers built many immense aqueducts, or bridge like stone structures that brought water from the hills
into Roman cities.
*heresy - The Christian Crunch sent missionaries into the Roman Empire to battle heresies, or beliefs said to be contrary
to official Church teachings.
*legion - The Roman army was divided into legions that were made up of 5,000 citizens, who weren’t paid.
*republic - The Romans set up a new government in the early 500 BC and called it the republic, which means “thing of
*sect - At first Christianity remained a sect or a small group, within Judaism; until Paul spread the word among the Roman
MIDDLE AGES/ Ch. 8-9
*peasant - Peasants are on the lowest step of the social ladder. They were given land by lesser lords and in return they had
to pay the lesser lords in crops, they were allowed to keep some for themselves also.
*usury - Usury is the lending of money at interest during the commercial revolution. The nobles and the clergy despised the
profits that the merchants and bankers were making from usury.
*capital - A capital is money for investment; the merchants needed money to buy goods, so they borrowed from moneylenders,
and in time it spurred the growth of banking houses.
*tithe - In the villages, Churches required all Christians to pay a tithe. The tithe is a tax equaled out to about one tenth
of their incomes.
*fief - Fiefs were land granted by lords to vassals; they ranged from a few acres to a few hundred acres. The fiefs included
peasants and the towns or buildings the land was on.
*chivalry - The chivalry was a code of conduct adopted by the knights in the later middle ages. It required the knights to
be brave, loyal, and true to their word.
*charter - When the merchants who set up new towns, they would ask the local lord or the king for a charter to protect their
interests, and in return they would pay the lords or kings money. A charter is a written document that set out the rights
and privileges of the town.
*troubador - Troubadors were wandering poets who adopted the code of chivalry. Their love songs praised the perfection, beauty,
and wit of the women throughout the ages. This ideas would shape tout modern ideas of romantic love.
*manor economy - The manor economy consisted of lords’ estates that include one or more villages and the surrounding
lands. The peasants and lords were tied together by mutual rights and responsibilities.
*how monks and nuns lived - The monks and nuns lived in monasteries and convents, in where the devoted their lives to spiritual
goals. At times they would spread the Christian teachings across Europe.
*Why was church reform desired? - The church grew very strong and then their discipline weakened. Monks, nuns, and persist
devoted their time into things beside the church.
*new agricultural technologies - Peasants invented new iron plows and wind mills in about 800. The new technology caused big
improvements and more productive farming.
*defense of castles (moats, etc) - Kings and lords created castles to defend from other feudal lords. Wars waged between lords
very often, so they hired knights to protect their land.
*Battle of Tours - The Franks lost to the Muslims at the Battle of Tours in 732. The Muslims were able to keep the pressure
on Europe up until the mid 900s.
*vassals - Vassals are the lesser lords, who pledged service and loyalty to the greater lords. Lords granted vassals fief
and in return they would pay the lords in services and payments.
*peasants - Peasants were also called serfs, they were bound to the land but were not slaves. They had certain rights that
are different form slavery.
*knights - Knights were nobles who trained from boyhood to become a mounted warrior. They were loyal and true to their words
to their lords.
*lords - Lords were one social class below the monarchs and one above the lesser lords. Lords granted the vassals a fief and
in return the vassals gave the lords services.
*why did the church have great power over the people? - The church had the power to excommunicate people, so they were feared.
The church also had armies that fought against monarchs and other feudal lords.
*Cluniac reforms - In the early 900s, the pious Abbot Berno at Cluny set out to end abuses, he first revived the Benedictine
Rule and he would not permit nobles to interfere in the running of monasteries.
*Three field system - The peasants used the three field system for a more productive farmland. The planted crops on the first
field, fruits and vegetables on the second filed, and the three fields was a spare field.
*merchant guilds - Merchant guilds passed laws, levied taxes, and decided whether to spend funds to pave the streets with
cobblestones, build protective walls for the city, or raise a new town hall.
*clergy - The clergy is a body of people ordained for religious service in the Church, such as the monks, nuns, and the priest.
*nobles - The Nobles were the elite class of the middle ages. Nobles were either monarchs or Lords that ruled over the other
classes of citizens.
*Charlemagne - Charles the Great built an empire across France, Germany, and parts of Italy. He worked with the church to
control his land and spread Christianity.
*Leif Erikson - Leif Erikson was a Viking that was the first known person to visit the Americas. He also built a village in
Vineland, which is now present day Newfoundland.
*serf - The peasants that worked and lived on the manors were called serfs. They were bound to the land but they were not
slaves who could be bought and sold.
*excommunication - Excommunication of a person was a punishment by the church. People who were excommunicated could not receive
the sacraments and they were shunned from the church forever.
*steel plow - The peasants used new technologies to improve productivity in farming. Steel and iron plows were able to carve
deep into the heavy soil of northern Europe.
*feudal system - The feudal system was a system designed to protect the people form invaders. The lords would give land to
the lesser lords and they would have peasants working on their farms.
*Black Death- which regions most devastated?% population died? Result? - The Black Death devastated Italy, Spain, and France
the most. It killed about 35 million people all over Europe and chaos broke out in the countries because of the fear of the
*Magna Carta - The Magna Carta stated the nobles had certain rights and that the monarchs must obey the law too.
*Concordat of Worms - The Emperor and the Church fought over power and they both eventually accepted a treaty. The Church
would have sole power to elect and invest bishops and the emperor had the right to invest them with fiefs.
*Chief goal of/ and result of the Crusades - The crusades were an attempt to convert everyone to Christianity or else they
would be killed. The crusades were attempted many times and every time they have failed.
*Reconquista - The Christians wanted to expel the Muslims during the Crusades They fought in 1492, when the Christians took
over Garanda, a Muslim strong point.
*early jury system - The juries were a group of men sworn to speak the truth. They determined which cases should be brought
to trial and were the ancestors of today’s grand jury.
*conflict between emperors and popes - The emperors and the popes fought for power. They both had armies but the pope had
the advantage to excommunicate the emperor from the church and he must ask for forgiveness from the pope.
A. 5 reasons late Middle Ages was a time of decline.
1. Power struggle between the pope and emperors
2. The black plague
3. The Hundred Years’ War
4. Division within the Catholic Church
5. Failure of Crusades
B. 3 long term effects of the crusades
1. Increased the power of feudal monarchs
2. Increased the level of trade in Europe
3. The church grew very powerful
RENAISSANCE, REFORMATION, ENLIGHTENMENT/ Ch. 14 & 18
Annul - Annul or an annulment means to cancels. King Henry VIII begged the Pope from an annulment of this marriage with his
Gravity - Isaac Newton came up with a theory called gravity. Gravity is the force between the planets.
Patron - A patron is a financial supporter; Lorenzo Medicis was a patron of the arts. He helped out the artists, poets, and
philosophers during his time.
Perspective - Renaissance artists learned the rules of perspective, unlike the Roman artists. Perspective help make the paints
seem to be three dimensional.
Theocracy - A theocracy is a government run by the church leaders. John Calvin set up a theocracy in the city state of Geneva
in Switzerland in 1541.
John Calvin - John Calvin was a priest and a lawyer, who helped lead the Protestant to a Reformation of the Catholic Church.
Calvinists were the followers of Calvin; they help spread Calvin’s ideas all over Europe.
Henry VIII - Henry VIII fought with the pope at the time for and annulment of his marriage. Henry then changed the laws through
the Parliament and appointed Thomas Crammer as archbishop so he can have an annulment.
Leonardo da Vinci - Leonardo da Vinci was an artist, inventor, and an anatomist. He created many drawings of the human body
in fine detail; he also painted the Mona Lisa.
Lorenzo de' Medici - Lorenzo came from the prosperous and wealthy banking family of the Medici of Florence. Lorenzo was able
to aid the artists during his time.
Niccolo Machiavelli - Niccolo Machiavelli wrote a book of his combined personal experience of politics and a guide to rulers
on how to gain and maintain power.
Heliocentric - Nicolaus Copernicus proposed a heliocentric or sun-centered model of the universe. Most experts at the time
rejected his new theory, but were later proved wrong.
Humanism - Humanism was an intellectual movement that occurred at the heart of the Italian Renaissance. It was based on the
study of classical culture, and worldly subjects.
Indulgence - An indulgence was a pardon for sins committed during a person’s lifetime. Churches sold these indulgences
for money instead of good deeds.
Predestination - John Calvin believed in the idea of predestination. It is an idea that says God had long ago determined who
would gain salvations.
Recant - Martin Luther came up with 95 theses of the Churches wrong doings, the Church tried to persuade him to recant, or
give up his views but he refused.
Copernicus - Copernicus proposed a heliocentric or sun-centered model of the universe. Most experts at the time rejected his
new theory, but were later proved wrong
Durer - Albrecht Durer was known as a German Leonardo, he studied the techniques of Italian masters then employed these methods
through the arts during his age.
Luther - Martin Luther came up with 95 theses of the Churches wrong doings and started a whole reformation on the Church.
Newton - Newton came up with a theory called gravity. Gravity is the force between the planets. He also came up with physic
Petrarch - Francesco Petrarch was an early Renaissance humanist. He hunted down and assembled a library of Greek and Roman
Renaissance focus - The Renaissance was a time of creativity and change in political, social, economic, and cultural prospective.
It focuses on the physical world instead of the spiritual world like in the middle ages.
Printing of reformation - The printing press during the reformation was a crucial point for the spread of ideas. With the
help of printing press, the philosophers would not have been able to get out their ideas and new inventions.
Results of Reformation - The results of the reformation were that the philosophers were able to spread new ideas and inventions.
The philosophers created a new way of thinking which was pasted down after the Reformation ended.
Causes of Renaissance - Thinkers wanted to find a new way of life; they wanted to change the views of the government and church.
The philosophers created new ideas that were used towards changing the government for a fairer lifestyle of the citizens.
Hobbes - In the age of philosophy, Thomas Hobbes was an English thinker that believed people are driven by selfishness and
greed. People should give up their freedom to the government for a better country.
Locke - Locke believed have a natural right to life, liberty, and property. Rulers have a possibility to protect these rights
and people have the right to change the government.
Joseph II - Joseph II was the Hapsburg emperor and he accepted the enlightened despots, he disguised himself as a peasant
to find out what was he doing wrong as a ruler.
Constitutional government - A constitutional government is a government whose power is defined and limited by law. Britain
used cabinet, political parties, and a prime minister to run the government.
Enlightened despot - Enlightened despots were the absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social
change. Only a few kings accepted this new idea thought up by the philosophers.
Natural laws - The natural laws are the laws human nature. Scientists pondered on the thought of reasoning to discover natural
law because they believed it was possible.
Natural rights - John Locke believed citizens had natural rights, or rights that belonged to all humans from birth. This includes
the right to live, liberty, and property.
Physiocrat - Physiocrats, the other English thinkers, focused on economic reforms. Like the philosophes, they looked for natural
laws to define a rational economic system.
Bach - Johann Sebastian Bach was a renowned German musical composer. He created many great musical pieces that consisted of
Diderot - Denis Diderot was a philosopher that came up with the idea of an Encyclopedia. He spent over 25 yeahrs of hard work
to produce a 28 volume encyclopedia that sold over 20,000 copies.
Tom Paine - Thomas Paine was an American Colonist that wanted freedom from the British. He wrote the book Common Sense, which
sparked a debate because it was so conversational.
Rousseau - Jean-Jacques Rousseau was an enlightened thinker and he believes that people are basically good but become corrupt
Robert Walpole - Robert Walpole was known to be Britain’s first prime minister. He molded the cabinets into a unified
body, requiring all members to agree on major issues.
Baroque - Baroques were paintings of the Greek and Roman traditions. Baroques are known to be huge, colorful, and full of
Free market - Adam Smith argued that the free market, or the natural forces of supply and demand, should be allowed to operate
and regulate business.
Laissez faire - The physiocrates urged a policy of Laissez faire, allowing business to operate with little or no government
Salon - Salons were informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophers, and others exchanged ideas. Salons
originated in the 1600s, when a group of noblewomen in paris began inviting a few friends to read poetry and such.
Social contract - Thomas Hobbes believed that people of a country should enter into a social contract, which is an agreement
by which they gave up the state of nature for an organized society.
AGE OF REVOLUTIONS/ Ch. 19& 23
Suffrage – The new legislative body called the National Convention give suffrage, which is the right to vote, to all
the male citizens, and not just property owners.
Sans-culottes – The Sans-culottes were the working class that consisted of men and women in French cities, and they
formed together and pushed the revolution into a more radical action.
Abdicate – Abdicate means to step down from power; in Napoleon’s situation, after he lost the war, he was strongly
advised to step down from the throne of emperor.
Deficit spending – King Louis XIV had left France in a deep hole of national debt. The French government were spending
more money than it takes in, causing a crisis.
Plebiscite – Plebiscites were ballots in which voters say yes or no to an issue. Napoleon held these plebiscites and
each time the French strongly agreed with him.
Blockade – A blockade involves shutting off ports to keep people or supplies from moving in or out. Napoleon was able
to set up a blockade along British ports successfully during the war.
Bourgeoisie – The Bourgeoisie were the middle classmen of the Third Estate. Their jobs consisted of prosperous bankers,
merchants, and manufacturers.
Nationalism – Nationalism is an aggressive feeling of pride in and devotion to one’s country. The rise of Napoleon
and his victories gave the French people nationalism.
Émigré – The Émigrés were the nobles, clergy, and the others who had fled revolutionary France. Émigré reported attacks
on their privileges, property, religion, and even their lives.
Louis XVI – King Louis XVI was a poor leader and king of France, causing the people to revolt and start a revolution.
Soon after, he was beheaded in front of the city of Paris.
Napoleon – Napoleon was the emperor of France after the directory handed enough power to him. He was a heroic general
that took over much of Europe; soon after, he was abdicated and sent to a deserted island to live out the rest of his life.
Olympe de Gouges – Gouges was a French journalist who demanded equal rights in Declaration of the Rights of Man, later
the French government created a Declaration of the Rights of Women.
Robespierre – Robespierre was the leader of the Committee of Public safety, he led France into the era known as the
Rein of Terror.
Jacques Louis David – David was an artist who painted images of historical events that happened during the revolution,
including the tennis court oath.
Who denounced French Revolution? Why? – The European monarchs denounced the revolution in fear of it spreading to their
Reign of Terror – The reign of terror was led by Robespierre and it lasted from 1793 to 1794. The reigns propose was
to behead anyone that was against the beliefs of the National Convention.
Napoleon annexed who? – Napoleon invaded and took over parts the Netherlands, Belgium, and parts of Prussia. Napoleon
was also able to destroy the Holy Roman Empire.
Congress of Vienna – The congress of Vienna were parties of European monarchs that met together to fix the problems
Alexander II – Alexander II came to the throne in 1855 and gave in to reforms that were demanded by the liberals and
Francis Joseph – Joseph’s rule lasted all the way until 1916 into the beginning of World War I and made reforms
during this time including the development of a constitution that set up a legislature.
Giuseppe Garibaldi – A longtime nationalist and an ally of Mazzini, Garibaldi wanted to create an Italian republic.
Otto von Bismarck – Bismarck was made chancellor, or prime minister, in 1866 by King William I. Within a decade, the
new chancellor had used his policy of “blood and iron” to unite the German states under Prussian rule.
William II – William II took the throne of Kaiser in 1888 after his grandfather died. William’s nationalism and
aggressive military stance helped increase tensions on the eve of World War I.
Camillo Cavour – He was a prime minister of a small kingdom called Sardinia. In office, he was able to reform many agricultural
and economical problems.
Anarchist – In the late 1800s, Italy was in full of radicals that was against a conservative government, Socialists
organized strikes while anarchist, people who want to abolish all government, turned to sabotage and violence.
Refugee – Refugees were the people who fled their homeland to seek safety else where. Under Alexander III rule, Jews
sought refuge in the U.S.
Pogrom – Under the rule of Alexander III, he made persecutions against Jews and encouraged violent mob attacks on Jews,
known as pogrom.
Realpolitik - Realpolitik was realistic politics based on a tough-minded evaluation of the needs of the state. Bismarck and
Cavour both believed and used this political strategy.
Zemstvo – Alexander II set up local governments during his reforms; the elected assemblies, called zemstvos, were made
responsible for matters such as road repair, school, and agriculture.
Economic development in Germany - Germany had a lot of iron and coal resources to improve their economy; they also built many
railroads that helped the trade process.
Nationalism threatened? Who? (Which country the most) - Nationalism threatened Italy the most rather than Germany. Italians
significantly dreaded nationalism because they did not want to slip back to their former lifestyle.
Revolution of 1905 – The people were unsatisfied by the Russian monarch, causing new political groups to form and take
over the government.
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION / Ch. 20-22
Enclosure – The process of taking over and fencing off land formerly shared by peasant farmers. In the 1500s, rich landowners
had enclosed land to gain pastures for sheep and increased wool output.
Factories (How they worked) - Factories were places that brought together workers and machines to produce large quantities
of goods. The workers are crammed into small work places and had to work for long hours.
Turnpike - As factories sprang up and production increased, entrepreneurs needed a faster way to ship goods; some invested
in turnpikes. They were the first types of the modern day freeways.
Urbanization - The Industrial Revolution brought rapid urbanization or a movement of people to cities from the farms.
Utilitarianism – By 1800, Jeremy Bentham was preaching utilitarianism, the idea that the goal of society should be “the
greatest happiness for the greatest number” of its citizen.
Socialism – To end poverty and injustices, thinkers offered a radical solution-socialism. Under socialism, the people
as a whole rather than private individual would own and operate the “means of production”-farms, factories, and
large businesses that produced and distributed goods.
Communism – Communism is a form of socialism that sees class struggle between employers and employees as inevitable.
Proletariat – In Marx’s view, the “have-nots” were the proletariat, or the working class that included
Michael Faraday – Faraday invented the electric generator called the dynamo, the power from the generator ran machines
and lighted up whole cites.
John Wesley - In the mid-1700s, John Wesley had been the leader of a religious revival and founder the Methodist Church; he
stressed the need for a personal sense of faith.
Karl Marx – A German philosopher, condemned the ideas of the Utopians as unrealistic idealism and preferred the ways
Thomas Malthus - Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo were supporters of laissez-faire that believed the best cure for poverty
was not government relief but the unrestricted “laws of the free market.”
John Stuart Mill - Bentham’s chief follower, John Stuart Mill, also argued that actions are right if they promote happiness
and wrong if they cause pain.
James Watt – Watt improved the first version of the steam engine, he used coal as a source of power instead of water.
Abraham Darby – Darby used coal instead of wood for smelting iron, he discovered coal gave off impurities that damaged
David Ricardo - Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo were supporters of laissez-faire that believed the best cure for poverty
was not government relief but the unrestricted “laws of the free market.”
Jeremy Bentham - – By 1800, Jeremy Bentham was preaching utilitarianism, the idea that the goal of society should be
“the greatest happiness for the greatest number” of its citizen.
Robert Owen - Robert Owen was a self made industrialist that didn’t believe in child labor. He was still successful
even without the use of cheap child labor.
Britain's population growth (why did it happen?) – The agricultural revolution caused less people to work the farms
due to new improvements and inventions, so the people moved to cities for work.
Importance of coal to Industrialization – Coal was the main source of power to run factories and smelt iron goods.
Agricultural Revolution - – The agricultural revolution caused less people to work the farms due to new improvements
and inventions, so the people moved to cities for work.
Textile industry – The textile factories boomed during the revolution due to new inventions and improvements with machines
to output more goods.
Laissez faire economics (Adam Smith) - Adam Smith believed that a free market -the unregulated exchange of goods and services-
would eventually help everyone, not just the rich.
Ideology – Ideology, or system of thought and belief, plunged Europe into a period of turmoil that lasted more than
Universal manhood suffrage – The liberals supported the principle of universal manhood suffrage, giving all adult men
the right to vote.
Autonomy – The Serbs eventually achieved autonomy, or self-rule, within the Ottoman Empire after more than 300 years.
February Days – In Feb. 1848, Louis Philippe abdicated from the throne and a group of liberals took over, the socialist
forced the government to set up national workshops to provide jobs.
Frankfurt Assembly – Throughout 1848, delegates from many German states met in the Frankfurt Assembly to create a constitution
for Germany for the whole land.
Simon Bolivar – Bolivar studied the methods of many of the great revolutionist and he led the struggle to liberate northern
South America from Spain.
Miguel Hidalgo – He was a priest in Mexico that raised a cry for freedom that would echo across the land. HE led an
army of poor mestizos and ative Americans.
Louis Kossuth – Hungarian nationalist led by Louis Kossuth demanded an independent government and also called for an
end to serfdom and a written constitution to protect basic rights.
Tupac Amaru – In 1780, Amaru organized a revolt, but a large army crushed them and captured and killed him, soon after
the Spanish king ordered an abolishment of forced Indian labor.
Louis XVIII – When the Congress of Vienna restored Louis XVIII to the French throne, he prudently issued a constitution,
the Charter of French Liberties.
John Stuart Mill - - Bentham’s chief follower, John Stuart Mill, also argued that actions are right if they promote
happiness and wrong if they cause pain.
Toussaint L' Ouverture – He was a slave in Haiti, but was lucky enough to get an education. He later led slave revolts
against the French rule.
Louis Napoleon – He was the nephew of Bonaparte and became the president of the democratic France by an overwhelming
Louis Philippe - In Feb. 1848, Louis Philippe abdicated from the throne and a group of liberals took over, the socialist forced
the government to set up national workshops to provide jobs.
Clemens Von Metternich – He was a conservative that believed monarchs should step in to defeat successful revolutions
in neighboring lands.
Pedro – The son of a Portuguese king, he became the emperor of Brazil and accepted a constitution that provided for
freedom of the press and religion as well as an elected legislature.
Revolts in Austrian empire – Nationalism was the main cause of successful revolts because sharing a common heritage
brought people of the same race together to form a separate state.
Goals of nationalists – The nationalist wanted a new way of government instead of a monarchy. Revolts against monarchies
changed the government to democracies to communism.
Conservative ideology in Europe – Conservatives wanted to keep the old way, the monarch government in rule because they
believed that a democracy or any other type of government will lead to chaos.
Interchangeable parts - To improve the efficiency of the factory system, manufacturers designed products with interchangeable
Assembly line – After the invention of interchangeable parts, manufacturers introduced another new method of production
called the assembly line.
Corporation – Large scale businesses formed giant corporations, businesses that are owned by many investors who buy
shares of stock.
Cartel – At times, a group of large corporations would form a cartel, an association to fix prices, set production quotas,
or divide up markets.
Women’s suffrage – The right for women to vote; dedicated groups emerged during the late 1800s.
Racism – Social Darwinism encouraged racism, the belief that one racial group is superior to another.
Social gospel – In Europe and the United States, Protestant churches backed the social gospel, a movement that urged
Christians to social service.
Romanticism – Wordsworth was part of a movement called romanticism and from about 1750 to 1850, romanticism shaped western
literature and arts.
Realism – Realism was an attempt to represent the world as it was, without the sentiment associated with romanticism.
Impressionism – Impressionism was a new form of painting that involved brush strokes of color side by side without blending.
Social Darwinism – Thinkers used Darwin’s ideas to promote their own beliefs about society, this became known
as social Darwinism.
Darwin – Darwin argued that all forms of life had evolved into their present state over millions of years; he also came
up with the theory of natural selection.
Joseph Lister – Lister discovered how antiseptics prevented infection and he encouraged doctors to wash their hands
Factory life (How it changed the lives of workers) – Workers in the factories suffered tremendously, they were forced
to work in unsanitary conditions and long hours for low pay.
IMPERIALISM/ Ch. 25-26
Imperialism – Imperialism is the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country
Protectorate – In a protectorate, local rulers were left in place. The ruler was, however, expected to accept the advice
of European advisers on issues such as trade or missionary activity.
Sphere of influence – A third form of western control was the sphere of influence, an area in which an outside power
claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges.
Genocide – Genocide is a deliberate attempt to destroy an entire religious or ethnic group. The Turks and the Armenians
were the center of a major genocide by the Christians.
Cash crop – The British encouraged nomadic Indian herders to settle into farming and pushed farmers to grow cash crops,
such as cotton and jute, which could be sold on the world market.
Balance of trade – China enjoyed a favorable balance of trade, exporting more than it imported. The Europeans bought
more goods than the Chinese bought from them.
Trade deficit – The Westerners, on the other hand, had a trade deficit with China, buying more from the Chinese than
they sold to them.
Indemnity – After the Chinese lost the Opium War, they gave Britain a huge indemnity or payment for the losses in the
Extraterritoriality – China had to open five ports to foreign trade and grant British citizens in China extraterritoriality,
the right to live under their own laws and be tried in their own courts.
Menelik II – In the late 1800s, a reforming leader, Menelik II began to modernize his country; he built roads, schools,
and bought weapons to train his army.
Muhammad Ali – Ali was known as the father of modern Egypt, he introduced and perused a number of political and economic
Ram Mohun Roy – Roy is known as the founder of Indian nationalism, he was an educated man who wanted to revitalized
and reform traditional Indian culture.
Boer War – In the late 1800s, the discovery of gold and diamonds in the Boer republics set off the Boer war, the British
won but at a great cost.
Sepoy Rebellion – The British approved and made many unpopular moves that disgraced the Indians, so they revolted, causing
mistrust, fear, and hatred among both sides.
Ethiopian Resistance to Europeans - The Ethiopians reformed quickly to crush the invading Italians to preserve their independence.
Taiping Rebellion (what caused it?) – The leader, Hong Xiuquan wanted to establish a “Heavenly Kingdom of Great
Peace” but he was turned down so he called for an end to the hated Qing dynasty.
Berlin Conference – In 1884, the European powers met in Berlin; they recognized Leopold’s private claims to the
Congo Free State but called for free trade on the Congo and Niger rivers.
Ottoman Empire – The Ottoman Empire had extended across the Middle East, North Africa,, and parts of Eastern Europe,
the empire fell from inside and the British, French and Russian took advantage of the crumbling empire.
British rule in India – The British East India Company’s main goal in India was to make money, and leading officials
became very rich.
Zaibatsu – Zaibatsu were powerful banking and industrial families. The Kawasaki family soon ruled over industrial empires
that rivaled those of the Rockefellers in the U.S. or the Krupps in Germany.
Homogeneous society – Japan modernized with amazing speed due to homogeneous society-that is, it had a common culture
and language that gave it a strong sense of identity.
Indigenous – The indigenous, or original, inhabitants of these regions were relatively few in number, and white settlers
quickly subdued and replace them.
Penal colony – To fulfill the needs for prisons, Britain made Australia into a penal colony, a place to send people
convicted of crimes.
Regionalism – With few roads and no tradition of unity, the new Latin American nations were weakened by regionalism,
loyalty to a local area.
Caudillo – Local strongmen, called caudillos, assembled private armies to resist the central government and at times
they gained national power.
Economic dependence – Economic dependence occurs when less developed nations export raw materials and commodities to
industrial nations and import manufactured goods, capital, and technological know-how.
Peonage – In the peonage system, hacienda owners would give workers advances on their wages and require them to stay
on the hacienda until they had paid back what they owed.
British-North America Act – The law was passed by the British Parliament in 1867; it is the law that created the Canadian
Monroe Doctrine – A policy issued by President James Monroe; it states that the American colonies are no longer allowed
to be considered subjects for future colonization by any European powers.
James Cook - A sailor that became captain of numerous ships, he led the Endeavour which took a number of scientists to the
Pacific Ocean to observe Venus. He also discovered and charted the waters of Antarctica.
Benito Juarez – He lived from 1806 to 1872 and was a national hero and president of Mexico from 1861 to 1863 and 1867
to 1872. Juarez is known as one of the greatest heroes in Mexican history.
Liliuokalani – She was the queen who tried to reduce foreign influences, the American platers over threw her in 1893
and then they asked the U.S. to annex Hawaii before the Germans of Japanese would.
James Monroe - He was the president that issued the Monroe Doctrine. He disliked having any more entangling alliances with
Matthew Perry – He led a fleet to Japan with a message for Japan to open their ports to trade. Japan opened two ports,
but not for trade.
Cuba – The Americans and Spain went to war for the territory of Cuba; the Americans later won the war and took over
the Philippines and set out to modernize it.
French Indochina – The French set up colonies in the Southeast Asian mainland and by the 1860s; the French invaded and
seized a chunk of Vietnam.
Korea (Hermit Kingdom) – Japan used its superior power to force Korea to open its ports to them and other western powers
forced Korea to sign unequal treaties.
Outback – In the early 1800s, Britain encouraged free citizens to immigrate to Australia by offering them land and tools.
Samoa – In 1878, the United States secured an “unequal treaty: from Samoa, gaining rights such as extraterritoriality
and a naval station.
French rule in S. East Asia - The French set up colonies in the Southeast Asian mainland and by the 1860s; the French invaded
and seized a chunk of Vietnam.
Self government (Australia and New Zealand) - Australia and New Zealand gained independence from Britain. The two countries
got elected their own prime minister and elected legislature.
Cecil Rhodes -