World History Standards
10.2 Students compare and contrast the Glorious Revolution of England, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution
and their enduring effects worldwide on the political expectations for self-government and individual liberty.
The Glorious Revolution of England, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution all had similar characteristics. First
off, they all once had an absolute monarchy which limited the power of the people. In all three revolutions, the citizens
rebelled against the monarchy and won. The people’s new choice of government was the democracy and republicanism, but
the point of the Glorious Revolution of England was to over throw King James II and replace him with a new king. In the American
Revolution, the colonists wanted a government ruled by themselves instead of the British. The colonists were able to win over
the British and created a democracy that consisted of power to the people. In the French Revolution, the citizens disliked
the ideas of having an absolute monarchy and decided to rebel in hopes for a democracy and republicanism.
1. Compare the major ideas of philosophers and their effects on the democratic revolutions in England, the United States,
France, and Latin America (e.g., John Locke, Charles-Louis Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Simón Bolívar, Thomas Jefferson,
and James Madison).
Locke, Charles-Louis, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Bolívar, Jefferson, and Madison were all great thinkers that shaped the modern
world’s democracy. Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau were the philosophers that influenced Jefferson and Madison to create
the American democracy when the colonist won the war against the British. Jefferson and Madison were the thinkers whom influenced
Charles-Louis during his fight against in the French Revolution. Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau were the thinkers that shaped
the English revolution from being a monarchy to a democratic country. Simón Bolívar was a leader in the fight for Venezuela,
Colombia, and Ecuador; he was influenced by all of the philosophers in the earlier years.
3. Understand the unique character of the American Revolution, its spread to other parts of the world, and its continuing
significance to other nations.
The American Revolution was a unique and influencing act of rebellion. The colonist longed for independence from the British
rule. The Americans at the time were very weak and they seemed to have little to no chance of wining against the English.
The American army consisted of local militia men and the British had the strongest navy in the world. The Americans were fortunate
enough to persuade the French to ally with them and this was the pivotal point during the war, with the help of the French
army the Americans were able to defeat the British in 1781. The colonist then developed a new constitution that had influences
from Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau. The colonists wanted a government that was not over powering like the British, and
they wanted the government to be a lot more lenient to its citizens. The American’s victory helped influence mostly
all the democratic countries today, The American’s constitution is said to be the most liberal government and from that,
other countries are able to copy from it and develop a strong untied government.
4. Explain how the ideology of the French Revolution led France to develop from constitutional monarchy to democratic despotism
to the Napoleonic Empire.
The French citizens believed that the abolishment of the constitutional monarchy would lead to a better and freer lifestyle.
When the monarchy fell, the National Convention took its place; the new French Republic allowed its citizens to vote and abolished
the titles of nobility. The national convention entered its third stage, the Constitution set up a five man Directory and
a two house legislature elected by male citizens. The Directory was a weak dictatorship, so it turned to the military hero,
Napoleon Bonaparte; they wanted to use him to advance their own goals but miscalculated. Within two years Napoleon accumulated
enough power to take the title Emperor of France. The Napoleonic Empire reformed and modernized France unlike the Directory
tried to do before. The Napoleonic Empire was very strong, until Napoleon lost in Russia, the Russians allied with the British,
Austria, and Prussia to destroy the French Empire. Napoleon was forced to step down from the throne of Emperor.
5. Discuss how nationalism spread across Europe with Napoleon but was repressed for a generation under the Congress of Vienna
and Concert of Europe until the Revolutions of 1848.
Napoleon was able to create a sense of nationalism for the citizens of France during his reign. He conquered many new lands
and won many battles against the neighboring countries. Napoleon also created many new enemies during this process of invading
new lands. Napoleon caused the Russian, British, Austrians, and the Prussians to ally with one another and take down the Napoleonic
Empire. The Congress of Vienna took the place of the French leaders and created many new laws for the French people. The Congress
of Vienna took away much of the French’s land and gave it back to the Russians, British, and Austrians. The Congress
of Vienna and Concert of Europe were the groups of European’s great powers, the Concert of Europe were the co-operations
of the Congress of Vienna. The two groups maintained and established the new French laws. It was until 1848, the French people
rebelled against the King and established a second republican.