1. A Turning Point in History
a. In the 1700s, most people worked the land; they lived simple lives and knew very little of the outside world.
b. When the Industrial Revolution began, rural life began to disappear and villages turned into industrial towns and cities.
c. Industrial-age travelers moved rapidly by train or steamboat; and messages now flew along telegraph wires.
2. A New Agricultural Revolution
a. The Dutch led the way in the new agricultural revolution; in the 1600s, they built earthen walls known as dikes to reclaim
land from the sea.
b. The British farmers used different kinds of soils to get higher crop yields and they used new methods of crop rotation.
c. The landowner’s enclosure on peasant land caused the peasants to move to the cities in search of jobs, thus creating
the Industrial Revolution.
3. The Population Explosion
a. The agricultural revolution contributed to a rapid growth of population.
b. Britain’s population rose from 5 million in the 1700s to about 9 million in the 1800s.
c. The population boom of the 1700s was due more too declining death rates than to rising birthrates.
4. An Energy Revolution
a. A third factor that helped trigger the Industrial Revolution was an “energy revolution.”
b. Giant water wheels powered the first factories in the 1700s.
c. In 1712, inventor Thomas Newcomen had developed a steam engine powered by coal to pump water out of mines.
5. Why Britain?
a. Britain had large supplies of coal and iron to fuel the new striving economy to start the Industrial Revolution.
b. The agricultural revolution of the 1600s and the 1700s freed many men and women in Britain from farm labor; therefore the
people went to cities in search of new jobs.
c. In the 1700s, trade from a growing overseas empire helped the British economy prosper; the business class accumulated capital
to invest in enterprise such as mines, railroads, and factories.
6. The Age of Iron and Coal
a. New technologies in the iron industry were key to the Industrial Revolution.
b. Iron was needed for machines and steam engines; but producing iron needed a sufficient amount of fuel.
c. Over the centuries, Britain had cleared most of its trees, and by the 1700s, they turned to coal for fuel.
7. Revolutionary Changes in the Textile Industry
a. Important changes also took place in Britain’s largest industry – textiles; in the 1600s, cotton cloth imported
from India had become increasingly popular.
b. Among the inventions was John Kay’s flying shuttle; they out worked old fashion spinners.
c. Factories were places that brought together workers and machines to produce large quantities of goods.
8. Revolution in Transportation
a. As factories sprang up and production increased, entrepreneurs needed a faster way to ship goods; some invested in turnpikes.
b. In the early 1800s, pioneers like George Stephenson developed steam-powered locomotives to pull carriages along rails.
c. In 1807, an American, Robert Fulton, used Watt’s steam engine to power the Clermont up the Hudson River.
9. Looking Ahead
a. As the industrial Revolution got under way, it triggered a chain reaction; in response to growing demands, inventors developed
machines that could produce large quantities of goods more efficiently.
b. As the supply of goods increased prices fell.
c. Lower prices made goods more affordable and thus created more consumers who further fed the demand for goods.
10. The New Industrial City
a. The Industrial Revolution brought rapid urbanization or a movement of people to cities.
b. Changes in farming, soaring population growth, and an ever increasing demand for workers led masses or people to migrate
from farms to cities.
c. Industrial cities had a divided urban population; the wealthy and the middle class lived in pleasant neighborhoods, and
the poor lived in slums.
11. The Factory System
a. The factory system differed greatly from farm work; in factories, workers faced a rigid schedule that included long hours.
b. Women made up much of the new industrial work force; the employers could have the same work done by paying women less than
c. Child worker were an investment for their families.
12. Patience Kershaw’s Life Underground
a. The horrors of child labor were slowly exposed in the 1890s and 1840s, when British lawmakers looked into abuses in factories
b. Kershaw was a girl that worked in the mines and she suffered a tough life.
c. By 1842, the Parliament passed laws to regulate the employment of children in mines and factories.
13. The Working Class
a. Weavers and other skilled artisans rejected the new machines that were costing them their jobs.
b. Workers were forbidden to form labor unions to bargain for better pay and working conditions.
c. In the mid-1700s, John Wesley had been the leader of a religious revival and founder the Methodist Church; he stressed
the need for a personal sense of faith.
14. The New Middle Class
a. Those who benefited most from the Industrial Revolution were the entrepreneurs who set it in motion.
b. Middle-class families lived in solid, well furnished homes and they dressed well and ate large meals.
c. The new middle class valued hard work and the determination to “get ahead.”
15. Benefits and Problems
a. Since the 1800s, people have debated wheather the Industrial Revolution was a blessing or a curse.
b. Reformers pressed for laws to improved working conditions; Unions won the right to bargain with employers for better wages
c. The industrial age did bring material benefits; as demand for mass-produced goods grew, new factories opened, creating
16. Laissez-Faire Economics
a. In the early 1800s, middle class business leaders embraced this laissez-faire, or “hands off” approach.
b. Adam Smith believed that a free market -the unregulated exchange of goods and services- would eventually help everyone,
not just the rich.
c. Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo were supporters of laissez-faire that believed the best cure for poverty was not government
relief but the unrestricted “laws of the free market.”
17. The Utilitarian
a. By 1800, Jeremy Bentham was preaching utilitarian, the idea that the goal of society should be “the greatest happiness
for the greatest number” of its citizens.
b. Bentham’s chief follower, John Stuart Mill, also argued that actions are right if they promote happiness and wrong
if they cause pain.
c. Most middle class people rejected Mill’s ideas; only in the later 1800s were his view slowly accepted.
18. Emergence of Socialism
a. To end poverty and injustice, the other thinkers at the time offered a radical solution - socialism.
b. Early socialists tried to build self-sufficient communities in which all work was shared and all property was owned in
common, this was called “Utopia.”
c. Robert Owen was a self made industrialist that didn’t believe in child labor.
19. The “Scientific Socialism” of Karl Marx
a. Marx believed that the ideas of Utopians were unrealistic and that communism would be a better path.
b. In the late 1800s, Russian socialists embraced Marxism, and the Russian Revolution 1917 set up a communist-inspired government.
c. According to Marx, the modern class struggle pitted the bourgeoisie against the proletariat.
20. Preserving the Old Order
a. Conservatives included monarchs and members or their government, noble landowners, and church leaders.
b. Conservatives of the early 1800s wanted turn back the clock to the ways things had been before 1789.
c. Conservatives believed that talk about natural rights and constitutional government could lead only to chaos, as it had
in France in 1789.
21. The Liberal challenge
a. In the early 1800s, liberals embraced Enlightenment ideas spread by the French Revolution.
b. Because liberals spoke mostly for the bourgeoisie, or middle class, their ideas are sometimes called “bourgeois liberalism.”
c. Liberals wanted government to be based on written constitution and separation of powers.
22. Nationalist Stirrings
a. Like liberalism, nationalism was an outgrowth of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution.
b. Unifying and gaining independence for people with a common national heritage became a major goal of nationalist in the
c. In two major rebellions between 1804 and 1817, the Serbs suffered terrible defeats, but in the end they were able to achieve
autonomy within the Ottoman Empire.
23. Challenges to the Old Order
a. Several other challenges to the Vienna settlement erupted in the 1820s; revolts occurred along the southern fringe of Europe.
b. Troops suppressed the uprisings only momentarily, the protesters would later become the victors.
c. By the mid 1800s, social reformers and agitators were urging workers to support socialism or some other way of reorganizing
24. France after the Restoration
a. When the Congress of Vienna restored Louis XVIII to the French throne, he prudently issued a constitution, the Charter
of French Liberties.
b. Liberals and radicals rioted causing Charles X to abdicate and flee to England.
c. The Chamber of Deputies chose Louis Philippe as king; the French called him the “citizen king” because he owed
this throne to the people.
25. The French Revolution of 1848
a. In the 1840s, radicals formed secret societies to work for a French republic.
b. After Louis Philippe abdicated; a group of liberal, radical, and socialist leaders proclaimed the Second Republic.
c. The Second Republic created a strong president and one-house legislature; the people of France voted for Louis Napoleon
to be the new president.
26. Europe Catches Cold
a. The one notable success for Europe’s revolutionaries in 1830 took place in Belgium.
b. In 1830, news of the Paris uprising that toppled Charles X ignited a revolutionary spark in Belgium.
c. As a result, in 1831, Belgium became an independent state with a liberal constitution.
27. The Springtime of the Peoples
a. Revolts were caused by middle class liberals, who wanted a greater share of political power, and the workers, who demanded
a relief their jobs.
b. In the Austrian Empire, Metternich, who had dominated Austrian politics for more than 30 years, tried to suppress a student
and worker revolt; he later failed so he resigned and fled in disguise.
c. A revolution up-rose in Italy, the nationalist set up independent republics, but the Austrian and French army later suppressed
28. Looking Ahead
a. By 1850, the flickering light of rebellion faded, ending the age of liberal revolution that had begun in 1789.
b. In 1848, a growing gulf divided workers seeking radical economic change and liberals pursuing moderate political reform.
c. In the decades ahead, liberalism, nationalism, and socialism would win successes not through revolution but through political
29. Climate of Discontent
a. By the late 1700s, the revolutionary fever that gripped Western Europe had spread to Latin America.
b. Educated creoles read works of the Enlightenment thinkers and they watch colonist in North America throw off British rule.
c. The spark that finally ignited widespread revolt in Latin America was Napoleon’s invasion of Spain in 1808.
30. Haiti’s Struggle
a. Even before Spanish colonist hoisted the flag of freedom, revolution had erupted else where in Latin America, in a French
ruled colony on the island of Hispaniola (Haiti).
b. In Haiti, French planters owned large sugar plantation and they had nearly half a million salves.
c. In 1791, a slave revolt exploded in northern Haiti.
31. Toussaint L’ Ouverture
a. Toussaint L’ Ouverture born into slavery in Haiti, he learned to speak both French and the African language by his
b. When a slave revolt broke out in 1791, Toussaint was nearly 50 years old; his intelligence and military skills soon earned
him the position of leader.
c. By 1798, Toussaint had achieved his goal of freeing Haitian slaves, and even though Haiti was still a French colony, Toussaint’s
forces controlled most of the island.
32. A Call to Freedom on Mexico
a. In 1810, however, a Creole priest in Mexico, Father Miguel Hidalgo, raised a cry for freedom that would echo across the
b. Poor Mexicans rallied to Father Hidalgo; a ragged army of poor mestizos and Native Americans marched to the outskirts of
c. When Mexico was free of Spanish rule, their lives did not change drastically.
33. New Republics in Central America
a. Spanish ruled lands in Central America declared independence in the early 1820s.
b. After the overthrow of Iturbide, local leaders set up a republic called the United Provinces of Central America.
c. The Union was short lived and it fragmented into new nations that suffered from social and economic problems.
34. Revolution in Sought America
a. The strongest challenge by Native Americans was led by Tupac Amaru; he demanded that the government end the brutal system
of forced Indian labor.
b. Simon Bolivar led an uprising in 1810 that established a republic in his native Venezuela.
c. The wars of independence had ended by 1824; Bolivar now worked tirelessly to unit the lands he had liberated into a single
nation, called Gran Colombia.
35. Independence for Brazil
a. When Napoleon’s armies conquered Portugal, the Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil.
b. During their stay in Brazil, the Portuguese king introduced many reforms, including free trade.
c. In 1822, Pedro followed his father’s advice and became emperor of an independent Brazil; which remained a monarchy
until 1889, when a social and political turmoil led it to become a republic.
36. New Industrial Powers
a. Belgium was the first European country to develop other than Britain, and then by the mid 1800s, other countries began
b. The other European countries were able to catch up to Britain’s technology because they had more coal, iron, and
other resources than Britain did.
c. The working force became very big and mass production lowered the prices of goods so that now that everyone can afford
37. New Methods of Production
a. To improve the efficiency of the factory system, manufacturers designed products with interchangeable parts.
b. In later years, manufacturers introduced another new method of production called the assembly line.
c. The inventions of new machines and methods made the production faster and cheaper.
38. Technology and Industry
a. In 1856, British engineer Henry Bessemer developed a process to purify iron ore and produce a new substance, steel.
b. Chemist created hundreds of new products, from medicines such as aspirin to new perfumes and soaps to margarine, the first
artificially produced foodstuff.
c. By the 1890s, cables carried electrical power from dynamos to factories.
39. The Shrinking World
a. The Germans were able to create a gasoline powered internal combustion engine which then led to the creation of the automobile.
b. In 1903, the Wright Brothers designed and flew the first airplane.
c. Telegraph and telephones would fasten the growing world even quicker.
40. New Directions for Business
a. By the late 1800s, giant corporations came to dominate the industries of steel and other resources.
b. Powerful business leaders created monopolies and trust, huge corporate structures that controlled entire industries or
areas of the economy.
c. By the late 1800s, Europeans and American corporations were setting up operations all around the world.
41. Medicine and Population
a. Populations soared because the death rate fell thanks to improved methods of farming, food storage, and distribution.
b. In the 1880s, the German doctor Robert Koch identified the bacteria that caused tuberculosis, a respiratory disease that
claimed about 30 million lives in the 1880s.
c. In 1846, a Boston dentist, William Morton, introduced anesthesia to relieve pain during surgery.
42. The Life of the Cities
a. Growing wealth and industrialization altered the basic layout of European cities.
b. The growing cities had a wealthy and middle class section and a slum section.
c. The city lured in many people in spite of the slums because it promised work.
43. Working Class Struggles
a. Workers tried to improve the harsh conditions of industrial life; they protested low wages, long hours, unsafe conditions,
and the constant threat of unemployment.
b. Pushed by unions, reformers, and working class voters, government passed laws regulating conditions in factories and mines.
c. Wages varied across the industrialized world, the unskilled were usually paid less.
44. A Shifting Social Order
a. The Industrial Revolution slowly changed the old social order in the western world.
b. By the late 1800s, Western Europe’s new upper class included superrich industrial and business families as well as
the old nobility.
c. In the highly industrialized Britain, workers made up more than 30 percent of the population in 1900.
45. Middle Class Values
a. The nuclear family lived in a large house, or perhaps in an apartment.
b. A strict code of etiquette governed social behavior.
c. By the later 1800s, most middle class husband went to work in an office or shop to support his family.
46. Rights for Women
a. Before 1850, some women had become leaders in the union movement.
b. By the late 1800s, married women in some countries had won the right to control their own property.
c. In Europe, groups dedicated to women’s suffrage emerged during the later parts of the 1800s.
47. The Growth of Schools
a. By the late 1800s, reformers convinced government to set up public schools and require basic education for all children,
b. In general, only middle class families could afford to have their sons attend schools.
c. Universities expanded during this period too; most of the students were the sons of middle class and or upper class families.
48. The Challenge of Science
a. A crucial breakthrough came in the early 1800s when the English Quaker schoolteacher John Dalton developed modern atomic
b. In his Principles of Geology, Charles Lyell offered evidence to show that the Earth had formed over millions of years.
c. In 1856, workers in the Neander valley of Germany accidentally uncovered the fossilized bones of prehistoric people, now
49. The Darwin Furor
a. Charles Darwin argued that all forms of life had evolved into their present state over millions of years.
b. Darwin adopted Malthu’s idea that all plants and animals produce more offsprings than the food supply could support.
c. Scientist and Christians argued about Darwin’s legitimacy.
50. Christianity in the Industrial Age
a. Despite the challenges of new ideas, Christianity continued to dominate western society.
b. The grim realities of industrial life stimulated feelings of compassion and charity in many Christians.
c. In Europe and the United States, Protestant churches backed the social gospel, a movement that urged Christians to social
51. The Revolt against Reason
a. Romantic writers, artists, and composers rebelled against the Enlightenment emphasis on reason.
b. Romantics painted many subjects, from simple peasant life to medieval knights to current events.
c. Ludwig van Beethoven was a romantic composer who took advantage of the broad range of instruments, now know as an orchestra.
52. A Tortured Musical Genius
a. Beethoven dedicated a whole symphony to Napoleon, but later changed the name to Eroica because Napoleon declared him emperor
b. His symphonies combined classical forms with the stirring range of sound favored by the romantics.
c. In about 1798, he began to lose his hearing; the advancing deafness led him to outbursts of rage and depression.
53. The Call to Realism
a. By the mid-1800s, a new artistic movement called realism took hold in the West.
b. The English novelist Charles Dickens vividly portrayed the lives of slum dwellers and factory workers, including children.
c. Painters rejected the romantic emphasis on imagination; they focused on ordinary subjects, especially working class men
54. Women Writers Win Recognition
a. Charlotte Bronte’s novel Jan Eyre follows the suffering of an orphaned governess and her love for Mr. Rochester,
a brooding, Byronic hero.
b. In France, Aurore Dupin Dudevant published a highly successful novel, Indiana, under the name George Sand.
c. In the United State, Harriet Beecher Stowe created a sensation with her first novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin.
55. New Directions in the Visual Arts
a. By the 1840s, a new art form called photography was emerging; Daguerre and Talbot had improved on earlier technologies
to produce successful photographs.
b. By concentrating on visual impressions rather than realism, artist achieved a fresh new view of familiar subjects.
c. Later painters, called post-impressionist, developed a variety of styles that included sharp brust lines and bright colors.