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Chapter 8 and 9 Study Guide
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Chapter 8 and 9 Study Guide

Chapter 8 and 9 Study Guide

Peasants are on the lowest step of the social ladder. They were given land by lesser lords and in return they had to pay the lesser lords in crops, they were allowed to keep some for themselves also.

Usury is the lending of money at interest during the commercial revolution. The nobles and the clergy despised the profits that the merchants and bankers were making from usury.

A capital is money for investment; the merchants needed money to buy goods, so they borrowed from moneylenders, and in time it spurred the growth of banking houses.

In the villages, Churches required all Christians to pay a tithe. The tithe is a tax equaled out to about one tenth of their incomes.

Fiefs were land granted by lords to vassals; they ranged from a few acres to a few hundred acres. The fiefs included peasants and the towns or buildings the land was on.

The chivalry was a code of conduct adopted by the knights in the later middle ages. It required the knights to be brave, loyal, and true to their word.

When the merchants who set up new towns, they would ask the local lord or the king for a charter to protect their interests, and in return they would pay the lords or kings money. A charter is a written document that set out the rights and privileges of the town.

Troubadors were wandering poets who adopted the code of chivalry. Their love songs praised the perfection, beauty, and wit of the women throughout the ages. This ideas would shape tout modern ideas of romantic love.

*manor economy
The manor economy consisted of lords’ estates that include one or more villages and the surrounding lands. The peasants and lords were tied together by mutual rights and responsibilities.

*how monks and nuns lived
The monks and nuns lived in monasteries and convents, in where the devoted their lives to spiritual goals. At times they would spread the Christian teachings across Europe.

*Why was church reform desired?
The church grew very strong and then their discipline weakened. Monks, nuns, and persist devoted their time into things beside the church.

*new agricultural technologies
Peasants invented new iron plows and wind mills in about 800. The new technology caused big improvements and more productive farming.

*defense of castles (moats, etc)
Kings and lords created castles to defend from other feudal lords. Wars waged between lords very often, so they hired knights to protect their land.

*Battle of Tours
Tthe Franks lost to the Muslims at the Battle of Tours in 732. The Muslims were able to keep the pressure on Europe up until the mid 900s.

Vassals are the lesser lords, who pledged service and loyalty to the greater lords. Lords granted vassals fief and in return they would pay the lords in services and payments.

Peasants were also called serfs, they were bound to the land but were not slaves. They had certain rights that are different form slavery.

Knights were nobles who trained from boyhood to become a mounted warrior. They were loyal and true to their words to their lords.

Lords were one social class below the monarchs and one above the lesser lords. Lords granted the vassals a fief and in return the vassals gave the lords services.

*why did the church have great power over the people?
The church had the power to excommunicate people, so they were feared. The church also had armies that fought against monarchs and other feudal lords.

*Cluniac reforms
In the early 900s, the pious Abbot Berno at Cluny set out to end abuses, he first revived the Benedictine Rule and he would not permit nobles to interfere in the running of monasteries.

*three field system
The peasants used the three field system for a more productive farmland. The planted crops on the first field, fruits and vegetables on the second filed, and the three fields was a spare field.

*merchant guilds
Merchant guilds passed laws, levied taxes, and decided whether to spend funds to pave the streets with cobblestones, build protective walls for the city, or raise a new town hall.

The clergy is a body of people ordained for religious service in the Church, such as the monks, nuns, and the persist.

The Nobles were the elite class of the middle ages. Nobles were either monarchs or Lords that ruled over the other classes of citizens.

Charles the Great built an empire across France, Germany, and parts of Italy. He worked with the church to control his land and spread Christianity.

*Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson was a Viking that was the first known person to visit the Americas. He also built a village in Vineland, which is now present day Newfoundland.

The peasants that worked and lived on the manors were called serfs. They were bound to the land but they were not slaves who could be bought and sold.

Excommunication of a person was a punishment by the church. People who were excommunicated could not receive the sacraments and they were shunned from the church forever.

*steel plow
The peasants used new technologies to improve productivity in farming. Steel and iron plows were able to carve deep into the heavy soil of northern Europe.

*feudal system
The feudal system was a system designed to protect the people form invaders. The lords would give land to the lesser lords and they would have peasants working on their farms.

*Black Death- which regions most devastated?% population died? Result?
The Black Death devastated Italy, Spain, and France the most. It killed about 35 million people all over Europe and chaos broke out in the countries because of the fear of the plague.

*Magna Carta
The Magna Carta stated the nobles had certain rights and that the monarchs must obey the law too.

*Concordat of Worms
The Emperor and the Church fought over power and they both eventually accepted a treaty. The Church would have sole power to elect and invest bishops and the emperor had the right to invest them with fiefs.

*Chief goal of/ and result of the Crusades
The crusades were an attempt to convert everyone to Christianity or else they would be killed. The crusades were attempted many times and every time they have failed.

The Christians wanted to expel the Muslims during the Crusades They fought in 1492, when the Christians took over Garanda, a Muslim strong point.

*early jury system
The juries were a group of men sworn to speak the truth. They determined which cases should be brought to trial and were the ancestors of today’s grand jury.

*conflict between emperors and popes
The emperors and the popes fought for power. They both had armies but the pope had the advantage to excommunicate the emperor from the church and he must ask for forgiveness from the pope.

Short Answer
A. 5 reasons late Middle Ages was a time of decline.
1. Power struggle between the pope and emperors
2. The black plague
3. The Hundred Years’ War
4. Division within the Catholic Church
5. Failure of Crusades
B. 3 long term effects of the crusades
1. Increased the power of feudal monarchs
2. Increased the level of trade in Europe
3. The church grew very powerful

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