Chapter 14 & 18 Outline
Chapter 14 Section 1
1. What was the Renaissance?
a. The Renaissance was a time of creativity and change in many areas-political, social, economic and cultural.
b. The Renaissance was a time of rebirth after the disorder and disunity of the medieval world.
c. Art, literature, and learning were largely emphasized; scholars explored the richness and variety of human experiences.
2. Italian Beginnings
a. The Renaissance began in Italy during the 1300s and lasted till the 1500s.
b. Italy was the center of ancient Roman history; it was only natural for this reawakening to start there.
c. In the 1400s, the Medici family of Florence organized a banking business; they sold art and became very wealthy merchants
and bankers in Europe.
a. Humanism was an intellectual movement during the Italian Renaissance.
b. Humanists believed in education and they studied the humanities, such as grammar, rhetoric, poetry, and history.
c. Francesco Petrarch, who lived from 1304 – 1374, was an early Renaissance humanist that assembled Greek and Roman
4. A Golden Age in the Arts
a. Renaissance artist learned the rules of perspective; by making distant objects smaller than those close to the viewer,
they can make portraits three dimensional.
b. Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo was a many sided genius – sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, and poet.
c. Gothic style architecture was rejected during the Renaissance; instead they adopted columns, arches, and domes that had
been favored by the Greeks and Romans
5. Writing for the New Age
a. Baldassare Castiglione’s The Book of the Courtier, was the most widely read “how-to” books.
b. Niccolo Machiavelli wrote The Prince, published in 1513.
c. The Prince showed of ruthless power politics.
Chapter 14 Section 2
6. Artist of the Northern Renaissance
a. The northern Renaissance began in the 1400s, in present day northern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands
b. Albrecht Durer was a “German Leonardo”, he studied the methods of Italian masters.
c. The Flemish painters painted of their portrayals of townspeople as well as their religious scenes abound in rich details
that add to the realism of their arts.
7. Northern Humanists
a. Northern Humanists believed in education and they emphasized religious themes.
b. Erasmus produced a New Greek edition of the New Testament and a much improved Latin translation of the same text.
c. Sir Thomas More described an ideal society in his book Utopia.
8. Literature of the Northern Renaissance
a. Northern writers usually wrote in Latin and their native language.
b. William Shakespeare was an English poet and a play writer; he wrote 37 palys between 1590 and 1613
c. Miguel de Cervantes wrote the Don Quixote, an entertaining tale that mocked romantic notions of medieval chivalry.
9. The Printing Revolution
a. The Chinese had learned to make paper and had printed books centuries earlier before the Europeans.
b. By the 1400s, the Germans engravers were able to make a movable printing press.
c. By the 1500, more than 20 million volumes of the bible were sold all over Europe.
Chapter 14 Section 3
10. Abuses in the Church
a. Popes fought against Italian Princes for political power over the Papal States and tried to keep control against invasion
by secular rulers
b. The Church charged money for indulgences
c. Many Christian seculars and humanist did not support the idea of the Church
11. Luther’s Protest
a. A German monk, named Martin Luther, set up a full scale revolt against the Church
b. Luther came up with 95 Theses dealing with the wrong doings of the Church
c. A Christian Sect was named after him and his teachings
12. Spread of Lutheran Ideas
a. By the 1530s, the Lutherans were using a new name, Protestant, for all those who “protested” papal authority.
b. German Princes embraced the idea of Luther’s reform for a more selfish reason; they wanted power over the church.
c. Peasants who were Lutherans revolted against serfdom
13. John Calvin
a. In 1536, Calvin published the Institutes of the Christian Religion, which set out his beliefs
b. Calvin preached predestination, the idea that God had long ago determined who would gian salvation
c. In keeping with his teachings, Calvin set up a theocracy, or a government ran by church leaders
Chapter 14 Section 4
14. Radical Reformers
a. Many more Protestant sects sprang up because of Calvin and Luther’s beliefs
b. Many of the new sects rejected the idea of infant baptism, because they are too young to understand.
c. The Quakers, Mennonites, and Amish all trace their ancestry to the Anabaptists.
15. The English Reformation
a. King Henry VIII wanted to end papal control over the English Church for political reasons.
b. King Henry need a male heir to take over the throne, so he asked the Church for a annulment of his marriage, so he is able
to marry to someone else.
c. King Henry shut down all convents and monasteries in England and seized their land because the Churched did not allow his
16. Elizabeth I Restores Unity to England
a. When Mary took the throne, she believed that Elizabeth had a plot against her and had Elizabeth imprisoned the Tower of
b. Soldiers had to come and take Elizabeth from the manor, and the people were terrorized by the fact of her unjust imprisonment.
c. Elizabeth established England as a Protestant nation after her reign was over.
17. The Catholic Reformation
a. Pope Paul III set out to revive the moral authority of the Church and roll back the vigorous Protestant movement.
b. The council of Trent reaffirmed traditional Catholic views, which the Protestants had challenged; they also took steps
to end abuses in the Church itself.
c. The Catholic Church was able to stop the vigorous Protestant wave over the course of 70 years.
18. Widespread of Persecution
a. The Catholic Church and the Protestants attacked each other in order to win over the major beliefs.
b. Between 1450 and 1750, tens of thousands of people died in the witch hunting craze.
c. Jews were forced to live in ghettos in certain countries, because of their beliefs and non faith towards the Catholic Church.
19. Looking Ahead
a. Wars against the Protestant and the Catholic Church broke out many times over Europe.
b. The wars against the two religious sects would go on until the mid 1600s.
c. Catholic and Protestant rulers during the mid 1600s often made decisions based on political interest rather than for purely
Chapter 14 Section 5
20. Changing Views of the World
a. In 1543, Nicolaus Copernicus proposed that the sun was the center of the universe instead of the earth.
b. Galileo Galilei developed a astronomical telescope and realized that the earth orbit around the sun.
c. Scientific methods were steps of figuring out a situation.
21. Newton Ties it all together
a. Isaac Newton developed the theory of gravity and proposed it to the world.
b. Newton came up with the theory of gravity when an apple fell to the ground.
c. In 1687, Newton published Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, explaining the law of gravity and other workings
of the universe.
22. More Scientific Advances
a. In the 1500s and 1600s, many new changes and breakthroughs were formed.
b. In the 1600s,, Boyle created the first periodic table and he also explained the effct of temperature and pressure on gases.
c. Leonardo da Vinci came up with many drawings of the human anatomy, thus creating a new road for medicine.
23. Bacon and Descartes
a. Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes were the first used the new scientific methods to its fuliest extent.
b. They both rejected the medieval scientific assumptions that were thought to be correct.
c. Scientists like Bacon and Descartes help pave the road for future scientist.
Chapter 18 Section 1
23. A World of Progress and Reason
a. The Enlightenment grew out of the Scientific Revolution of the 1500s and 1600s.
b. People soon began to ponder on the question of natural laws.
c. Enlightenment thinkers could solve every social, political, and economic problem through the use of reason.
24. Two Views of the Social Contract
a. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke were two thinkers that set forth ideas that were to become keys to the Enlightenment.
b. Hobbes wanted an absolute monarchy to have a strong state.
c. Locke rejected the idea of a monarchy; instead he wanted a government with limited powers.
25. Montesquieu’s Spirit of the Laws
a. Baron de Montesquieu was an influential thinker that studied the many governments around the world
b. He admired the British government because it had divided itself into three different branches
c. He felt that the three branches could check and balance each other to prevent tyranny.
26. The World of the Philosophies
a. Philosophes were thinkers that were also known as “lovers of wisdom”
b. Denis Diderot produced a 28-volume Encyclopedia over the course of 25 years
c. Over 20,000 of his encyclopedia were sold even though it was to be banned
27. Rousseau: A Controversial Figure
a. Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a strange, difficult, and the most controversial philosophe.
b. He felt that people were good in their natural state, but they are corrupted by the evils of society.
c. His ideas caused to sides to form, the ones that support the idea and the ones who hated him for coming up with that idea.
28. Limited “Natural Rights” for Women
a. Women did not have “natural rights” during the Enlightenment thought the philosophes.
b. By the mid-1700s, a small but growing number of women protested the view of rights.
c. Wollstonecraft argued that education could give women the tools they needed to participate equally with men in public life.
29. New Economic Thinking
a. Other thinker, the physiocrates, focused on economic reforms.
b. They urged a policy of laissez faire, which allow businesses to operate with little or no government interference.
c. Adamn Smith argued that the free market should be allowed to operate and regulate business.
Chapter 18 Section 2
30. The Challenge of New Ideas
a. The Ideas of the Enlightenment spread quickly through many levels of society.
b. People began to question the government instead of accepting it without question.
c. To protect against the attack of the Enlightenment, the Government and Church waged a war of censorship, banning and burning
books and imprisoning writers.
a. New literature, arts, science, and philosophy were regular topics of discussions in salons.
b. Philosophers, writers, artists all gathered at salons to exchange ideas and what not.
c. Salonieres were middle class citizens that net with nobility on an equal footing to discuss and spread Enlightenment ideas.
32. The Salon in the Rue Saint Honore
a. Madame Geoffriin wanted to start a salon since she was young.
b. Her husband rejected the idea but she did it anyway, and once he died she was free to do what she pleased.
c. By the end of the 1700s, the influences of women’s salon had ended
33. Enlightened Despots
a. Enlightened despots, or absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change.
b. Frederick the Great, king of Prussia, admired Voltaire and lured him to Berlin to develop a Prussian academy of science.
c. Joseph II, the most radical enlightened despots, traveled in disguise among his subjects to learn of their problems.
34. The Arts and Literature
a. In the 1600s and 1700s, the arts evolved to meet changing tastes to fit the people’s enjoyment.
b. A new audience, the growing middle class, emerged with its own requirements.
c. Ballets, and operas, plays set to music were preformed at royal courts as a new kind of entertainment.
35. Lives of the Majority
a. Most Europeans were untouched by either courtly or middle class culture.
b. Villages in Western Europe were relatively more prosperous than those in Eastern Europe.
c. In the 1800s, war and political upheaval as well as changing economic conditions would transform peasant life in Europe.
Chapter 18 Section 3
36. Global Expansion
a. England’s location made it well placed to control trade during the Renaissance.
b. In the 1700s, Britain was generally on the winning side in European conflicts.
c. England offered a more favorable climate to business and commerce than its European rivals.
37. Growth of Constitutional Government
a. In the century after the Glorious Revolution, three new political institutions arose in Britian: political parties, the
cabinet, and the office of prime minister.
b. The institutions evolved England’s constitutional government-that is, a government whose power is defined and limited
c. Heading the cabinet was the prime minister, who was the leader of the majority party in Parliament and in time the chief
official of the British government,
38. Politics and Society
a. The age of Walpole- the first prime minister- was a time of peace and prosperity, in time the government would change from
oligarchy to a democracy.
b. In Britain as on the continent, landowning aristocrats were seen as the “natural” ruling class.
c. The middle class was growing as the merchants and manufacturers grew wealthy.
39. George III Reasserts Royal Power
a. In 1760, King George embarked on a 60 year reign, and he was born in England
b. George found seats in Parliament for “the king’s friends.”
c. George III lost control of American colonist in the Revolutionary War.
Chapter 18 Section 4
40. The 13 English Colonies
a. By 1750, a string of 13 prosperous colonies stretched along the eastern coast of North America
b. By the mid-century, the colonies were home to diverse religions and ethnic groups, unlike England.
c. Even though the Northern and Southern colonies differed in lifestyles, they both had an increasing sense of their own destiny
separate from Britain.
41. Growing Discontent
a. The British taxed goods in America, which lead to protests against the unrepresented colonies.
b. In April 1775, the British and the American colonies exploded into war.
c. The American colonist won the war and declared independence from the British by signing the Declaration of Independence.
42. The American Revolution
a. The American army didn’t seem to stand a chance against the powerful British colony.
b. The Americans convinced the French to fight against the British at the battle of Saratoga.
c. Finally in 1781, with the help of French fleet, Washington forced the surrender of a British army at Yorktown.
43. A New Constitution
a. A national government set up by a document that Americans called the Article of Confederation was too weak to rule the
new United States effectively.
b. The framers of the Constitution had absorbed the ideas of Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseasu and had studied the governments
of the past world.
c. The new Constitution of the United States created the most liberal government of its time.