Chapter 27 Outline
1. Pressure for Peace
a. The late 1800s early 1900s saw serious efforts to end the scourge of war, the Nobel Peace Prize were created to encourage
inventions made for peace.
b. In 1899, the first Universal Peace Conference brought together leaders of many nations in The Hague in the Netherlands.
c. Powerful forces began to push Europe to war; this including aggressive nationalism, economic competition, imperialism,
an arms race, and rival alliance systems.
2. Aggressive Nationalism
a. Nationalism can be a positive force, binding together a nation’s people; in the early 1900s, aggressive nationalism
was a leading cause of international tension.
b. France and Germany had a strong sense of nationalism; the French resented the fact that Germany had taken over their lost
c. The Austria-Hungry and the Ottoman Turkey were two empires that feared nationalism among themselves and other countries.
3. Economic and Imperial Rivalries
a. The British feared of Germany’s economic growth and power, and by the 1900s, Germany was able to output more goods
b. In 1905 and again in 1911, competition for colonies brought France and Germany to the brink of war.
c. France and Britain began to form closer ties against Germany after it gained some territory in Central Africa.
4. Militarism and the Arms Race
a. The late 1800s saw a rise in militarism, under militarism, the armed forces and readiness for war came to dominate national
b. The rise of militarism grew partly out of the ideas of Social Darwinism; the idea of survival of the fittest.
c. Generals and admirals began to gain more respect as the tensions between countries grew stronger and stronger.
5. A Tangle of Alliances
a. Nations signed treaties pledging to defend each other; these alliances were intended to create powerful combinations that
no one would dare attack.
b. France, Russia, and Britain became known as the allies; Germany, Austria-Hungry, and Italy became known as the Central
c. Rather than easing tensions, the treaties and alliances made the rival of alliance system more nerve reeking.
6. A Murder with Millions of Victims.
a. Unity or Death, a terrorist group commonly known as the Black Hand; its goal was to organize all South Slav people into
a single nation.
b. The Austrian government refused to take the Slave people seriously and ignored warnings of anti-Austrian unrest in Sarajevo.
c. Princip show and killed the wife of the archduke; he was later imprisoned and died in his cell in 1918.
7. Peace Unravels
a. Austria sent Serbia a sweeping ultimatum; to avoid war, Serbia must end all anti-Austrian agitation and punish any Serbian
official involved in the murder plot.
b. Serbia, Russia, France, and Britain allied together against Austria, Germany in the “summer war.”
c. Britain declared war on Germany only after they invaded Belgian, which was supposed to be a neutral state.
8. Whose Fault?
a. After the Allies won the war, they blamed Germany for the catastrophe nobody wanted, but Germany disagreed.
b. Each great power believed its cause was just and that the opposing force was the ones to blame, even though their reasons
for war was just.
c. Although leaders made the decisions, most people on both sides were equally committed to military actions
9. The Western Front
a. On the Western Front, the warring armies burrowed into a vast system of trenches, stretching from the Swiss frontier to
the English Channel.
b. In 1916, both the Allies and Central Powers launched massive offensives to break the stalemate; this led to huge numbers
of deaths and casualties.
c. Modern weapons added to the destructiveness of the war; artillery could hit and destroy enemy lines from 70 miles away.
10. Other European Fronts
a. The Eastern Front of Europe had an even high death rate than that of the Western Front, mainly due to a lack of modernization
on the Russian side.
b. In August 1914, Russian armies pushed into eastern Germany; the battle of Tannenburg was the wars worst defeat yet.
c. The Italians fought on the Allies side to gain Austrian-ruled lands inhabited by Italians. Bulgaria joined the Central
Powers and helped crush its old rival Serbia.
11. The War beyond Europe
a. The Allies overran scattered German colonies in Africa and Asia; the Allies also turned to their own colonies for support
b. The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in 1914; they were able to close off allied ships from the link to the black
sea and Russia.
c. Japan, allied to Britain, used the war as an excuse to seize German outpost in China and islands in the Pacific.
12. Effects of the Stalemate
a. As the struggle wore on, nations realized that a modern, mechanized war required the total commitment of their whole society.
b. Early on, both sides set up systems to recruit, arm, transport, and supply armies that numbered in the millions causing
the governments to raise taxes and debut.
c. Propaganda is the spreading of ideas to promote a cause or damage an opposing cause, both sides used to method to get out
the word of war.
13. Women at War
a. Many women worked in war industries, manufacturing weapons and supplies as the men went to war.
b. Military nurses shared the dangers of the men whose wounds they tended; at aid stations close to the front line, they worked
around the clock especially after a big “push.”
c. War work gave women a new sense of pride and confidence; after the war, most women had to give up their jobs to men returning
14. Collapsing Morale
a. Germany was sending 15 year old recruits to the front line, and Britain was on the brink of bankruptcy.
b. Russian czar was overthrown and a communist nation rose with Lenin as the dictator; he later signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk,
which ended Russian participation in World War 1.
c. With Russia out of the way, Germany can concentrate on the Western Front, the Central Powers stood ready to achieve their
15. The United States Declares War
a. The U-boats destroyed and killed many Americans, which led President Woodrow Wilson to declare war on Germany.
b. In April 1917, Wilson asked Congress to declare war on Germany; by about 1918, about two million American soldiers had
join the war weary allied troops fighting on the Western Front
c. In January 1918, Wilson issued the Fourteen Points, a list of his terms for resolving this and future wars.
16. Campaign to Victory
a. A final showdown got underway in early 1918. In March, the Germans launched a huge offensive that pushed the Allies back
40 miles by July.
b. German commanders advise the Kaiser to step down, as the czar had done; William II did so in early November, fleeing into
exile in the Netherlands.
c. The new German government sough an armistice, or agreement to end fighting, with the Allies.
17. The Cost of War
a. More than 8.5 million people were dead; double that number had been wounded, many handicapped for life.
b. The Allies blamed the conflict on their defeated foes and insisted that the losers make reparations, or payment for war
c. Under the stress of war, governments had collapsed in Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungry, and the Ottoman Empire. Political
radicals dreamed of building a new social order.
18. The Paris Peace Conference
a. France, Britain, and the United States planed for peace among the defeated and victorious nations.
b. The French wanted Germany to stay weak so that it could never again threaten France.
c. Wilson’s dream was to create an international League of Nations to guarantee peace for the future.
19. The Treaty of Versailles
a. In June 1919, the peacemakers summoned representatives of the new German Republic to palace of Versailles outside of Paris.
b. The treaty also imposed huge reparations that would put an already damaged German economy under a staggering burden; the
total cost was about $30 billion.
c. The Germans were resentful when they signed the treaty, it help spark an even more deadly world war 20 years later.
20. Other Settlements
a. New nations emerged among the broken empires and three new republic – Czechoslovakia, Austria, Hungary – rose
in the old Hapsburg heartland.
b. Britain and France gained mandates over German colonies in Africa and Ottoman lands in the Middle East.
c. Italy and Japan were nations that wanted land out of the war but were ignored and refused their share.
21. Hopes for Global Peace
a. The Paris Peace Conference offered one beacon of hope in the League of Nations; people looked towards the league for peace.
b. More than 40 nations joined the league; they agreed to negotiate disputes rather than resort to war.
c. As time soon revealed, the league was powerless to prevent aggression or war, but it was a first step towards something