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Chapter 27 Study Guide - WWI
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Chapter 27 Study Guide

Ch. 27
Militarism – The late 1800s saw a rise in militarism, the glorification of the military. Under militarism, the armed forces and readiness for war came to dominate national policy

Ultimatum - A final set of demands; to avoid war, Serbia must end all anti-Austrian agitation and punish any Serbian official involved in the murder plot.

Mobilize – To prepare for war; the Russians did so when Austria refused to soften its punishment on Serbia. Germany declared war on Russia in response.

Neutrality – A policy of supporting neither side in a war. Italy and Britain remained uncommitted in the first part of the war.

Total war – Total war is the channeling of a nation’s entire resources into a war effort. Both sides set up systems to recruit, arm, transport, and supply armies that numbered in the millions.

Propaganda – Propaganda is the spreading of ideas to promote a cause or damage an opposing cause. The Germans and British government gave a sense of nationalism to its people to fight.

Atrocity – Atrocity is horrible acts against innocent people. Allied propaganda circulated tales of these happenings in the press to discourage the enemies.

Armistice – Armistice is an agreement to end fighting. The new German government sought out peace with the Allies and the Great War came to an end at 11 A.M. on Nov. 11, 1918.

Reparations – Reparations are payments for war damages. The Allies insisted the Central Powers pay for damages, but they argued that the armistice was a cease fire rather than surrendering.

Mandate – Mandate is territories that were administered by western powers. Britain and France gained mandates over German colonies in Africa and Ottoman lands in the Middle East.

Edith Cavell – She British nurse worked in the Red Cross hospital in Belgium after the German invasion. When Germany soldiers discovered that she was helping allied prisoners escape.

Georges Clemenceau – The French leader, nicknamed “the Tiger” for his fierce war policy. His chief goal was to weaken Germany so that it could never again threaten France.

Alfred Nobel – He was the Swedish inventor of dynamite. He also set up the Nobel Peace Prize to reward each year the individual whose work advanced the cause of peace.

Gavrillo Princip – A member of the Unity or Death terrorist group, he was the one who shot and killed the archduke of Austria.

Sarajevo – Sarajevo was the capital of Bosnia, which was on the boarder of Hungary.

Woodrow Wilson – Wilson was the 28th president of the United States, he declared war when the Germans destroyed a U.S. cruise ship that was carrying a couple hundred Americans aboard.

Wilson's Fourteen Points – A plan of a "peace without victory" most completely explained in his "Fourteen Points" speech before Congress on 8 January 1918; included in the lists were an end to secret treaties, freedom of the seas, free trade, and a large-scale reduction of arms.

Francis Ferdinand - On June 28, 1914, while traveling in a motorcade through Sarajevo, Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie were assassinated by a Serbian nationalist.

Kaiser William II - Kaiser William II was willing to preserve the triple alliance. He also allowed Bismarck’s reinsurance treaty, which was made with Russia in 1887, it crumbled, letting Russia seek new allies.

Bertha Von Sutner – An Austrian author that wrote the antiwar novel Lay Down Your Arms. It called for Austrian peace and she received a Nobel Peace Prize.

Triple Alliance - The triple-alliance was made up of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Also known as the Central Powers.

Ottoman Empire - the Ottoman Empire joined powers in with the central powers in 1914. They were able to close off allied ships from the black sea which was a crucial link.

Trench warfare – On the Western Front, both sides of the war made trenches that spanned for miles, life in the trenches were hard and unforgiving.

Machine gun – Machine guns made it possible for a few gunners to mow down waves of soldiers. This helped to create stalemates by making it hard to advance.

Airplane – Airplanes were first used as scouts but as technology advanced the planes began having machine guns strapped on.

Role of women in WWI – Women took over the jobs that the men had before the war, they also were military nurses, many served on the front lines.

Nationalism – Nationalism played a crucial role in starting the war. Pass tensions, fear, and pride all help spark the war.

Paris Peace Conference – The Paris Peace Conference offered one beacon of hope in the League of Nations, the meetings helped bring peace to the tension filled nations.

American neutrality – America wanted to remain neutral but German U-boats were destroying U.S. cruise ships and that sparked hated and distrust.

Black Hand - he Black Hand is a terrorist group that wished to kill the Archduke of Austria, Gavrilo Principe was the one who assassinated the royal king and queen.

Treaty of Versailles - The Allied peacemakers summoned representatives of the new German republic to the palace of Versailles outside Paris the Germans were ordered to sign the treaty.

Self determination – One of Wilson’s fourteen points, he believed through self determination and democracy will raise expectations for a just and lasting peace.

Shleiffen Plan – He planed to destroy the Russians on the Eastern Front first then fight off the other Allies on the Western Front.

U boat – U boats were German submarines that attacked allied naval and shipping boats. Its attacks also helped bring the U.S. into war.

Lusitania - The Lusitania was a ship that was sunk by a German U-boat, killing American citizens on board. Wilson declared war on the Central powers after this incident.

Armistice – Armistice is an agreement to end fighting. The new German government sought out peace with the Allies and the Great War came to an end at 11 A.M. on Nov. 11, 1918.

Mandate - An authoritative command or instruction. The Allies made a list of payments for the Central Powers to repay.

War reparations - War reparations were payments for war damage. In the treaty of Versailles Germany was blamed as the scapegoat and had to repay Europe nearly 30 billion dollars.

Western front – The Western Front was the side of Germany that faced Britain and France. The trench filled lands proved hard to fight on.

Eastern front – The Eastern Front was the side of Germany that faced Russia; because Russia was the least modernized nation, they lost many lives.

Verdun - The Battle of Verdun is considered the greatest and lengthiest in world history. Never before or since has there been such a lengthy battle.

Battle of Marne - The Allies counterattacked against the German forces, with little success. The Germans then attacked the French lines, but their attack failed

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