Chapter 29 and 30 Outline
1. The Mexican Revolution
a. By 1910, the dictator Porfirio Diaz had ruled Mexico for almost 35 years; Mexico was in peace and economic growth.
b. The high and middle classes were prospering while the peasants fell into an even deeper poverty line.
c. Francisco Madero, a liberal reformer, won the election against Diaz and became the new president in 1911.
a. In 1917, Venstiano Carranza, a conservative, was elected president of Mexico and approved a new constitution.
b. The Constitution of 1917 addressed three major issues: land, religion, and labor. It also allowed nationalization of natural
c. In 1929, government leaders organized the Institutional Revolutionary Party (RPI), it managed to accommodate all groups
in Mexican society.
3. Rising Tide of Nationalism
a. Mexico’s move to reclaim its oil fields from foreign investors reflected a growing spirit of nationalism in Latin
b. During World War 1 and the Great Depression, Mexico’s trade with the United States and Europe.
c. Cultural nationalism was reflected in the revival of mural painting, a major art form of the Aztecs.
4. The “Good Neighbor” Policy
a. During and after World War I, investments by the United States in the nations of Latin America soared, especially as British
b. By the 1920s, the Latin Americans’ feelings towards the United States grew bitter; President Franklin Roosevelt still
agreed to follow the good neighbor policy.
c. The Good Neighbor Policy survived until 1945, when global tensions led the U.S. to intervene once again in the region.
5. Movements for Change in Africa
a. During the early 1900s, more and more Africans felt the impact of colonial rule, and the British made all Africans carry
b. Africans imposed a system of racial segregation that became known as apartheid, which was to ensure white economic power.
c. The African Nation Congress worked through legal means, protesting laws that restricted the freedom of black Africans.
6. Growing Self Confidence
a. The Pan Africanism emphasized the unity of Africans and people of African descent around the world.
b. Led by the African American W.E.B. DuBois, Pan-Africanism tried to forge a united front.
c. In the 1930s, young Egyptians were attracted to the Muslim Brotherhood that rejected western culture and denounced widespread
corruption in the Egyptian government.
7. Modernization in Turkey and Iran
a. Led by the determined and energetic Mustafa Kemal, Turkish nationalist overthrew the sultan, defeated western occupation
forces, and declared Turkey a republic.
b. In a move that swept away centuries old traditions, Ataturk replaced Islamic law with a new law code with a new law code
based on European models.
c. The modernization of Turkey influenced Iran to reform also and adopted western customs.
8. Arab Nationalism and European Mandates
a. Pan-Arabism nationalist movement built on the shared heritage of Arabs who lived in lands from the Arabian Peninsula through
b. The mandates-territories administered by European nations-set up by the Paris Peace Conference outraged Arabs.
c. The Jews and Palestinians the holy land, Israel. They have been fighting for total control of the land since the 1930s.
9. Moves towards Independence
a. The tragedy at Amritsar was linked to Indian frustration after World War I.
b. To quiet nationalist demands, the British lied about giving more freedom of self government to India after the war.
c. Since 1885, the Congress party had pressed for self-rule within the British Empire.
10. Mohandas Gandhi
a. In his struggle against injustice, he adopted the weapon of nonviolent resistance to fight with the British.
b. Gandhi embraced the teaching of Henry David Thoreau, who believed in civil disobedience.
c. Gandhi called for boycotts of British goods and self reliance on making homemade goods.
11. The Salt March
a. To Gandhi, the government salt monopoly was an evil burden on the poor and a symbol of British oppression.
b. On March 12, Gandhi and 78 other followers set out on a 240 mile march to the Read Sea.
c. Gandhi’s campaign of nonviolence and the self sacrifice of his followers slowly forced Britain to agree to hand over
some power to Indians and meet other demands of the Congress party.
12. Looking Ahead
a. While millions of Muslims responded to Gandhi’s campaigns, tensions between Hindus and Muslims often erupted into
b. During the 1930s, the Muslim League gained an able leader in Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
c. Britain outraged Indian leaders by postponing further action on independence and then bringing India into the war without
13. The Chinese Republic
a. In China, the Qing dynasty collapsed in 1911. Sun Yixian, later Yuan Shikai, hoped to rebuild China on the Three Principles
b. While western powers were distracted by World War I, Japan presented Yuan Shikai with Twenty-one Demands, which sought
to make China a Japanese protectorate.
c. In 1919, at the Paris Peace Conference, the victorious Allies gave Japan control over German possessions in China.
14. Leaders for a New China
a. In 1921, Sun Yixian, later Jiang Jieshi, and his Guomindang, or Nationalist, party established a government in south China.
b. Jiang Jieshi killed all followers and leaders of the Communist Party.
c. The Long March in 1934 was an epic retreat of Mao and about 100,000 of his Communist followers. They marched 6,000 miles
and only about 20,000 of them survived the attacks.
15. Japanese Invasion
a. In 1931, Japan invaded Manchuria in northeastern China, adding it to the growing Japanese Empire.
b. From 1937 to 1945, the Guomindang, the Communist, and the Japanese were locked in a three sided struggle.
c. Within a few years after the war, the Communist would triumph, and Mao would move to impose revolutionary change in China.
16. Liberal Changes of the 1920s
a. In the 1920s, Japan moved toward greater democracy; political parties grew stronger, and elected members of the Diet –
the Japanese parliament – exerted their power.
b. During World War I, the Japanese economy enjoyed phenomenal growth and its exports to the Allies soared.
c. Socialists were elected to the Diet as the poor wanted more freedom and income.
17. The Nationalist Reaction
a. In 1929, the Great Depression rippled across the Pacific, striking Japan with devastating force.
b. As economic disaster grew at an all time high, extreme nationalists wanted to expand the Japanese empire into China.
c. In 1931, a group of Japanese army officers provoked an incident that would provide an excuse to seize Manchuria.
18. Militarists in Power
a. By the early 1930s, ultranationalist were winning popular support for foreign conquest and a though stand against the western
b. Military leaders plotted to overthrow the government and, in 1936, briefly occupied the center of Tokyo.
c. By 1939, Japan had joined with two aggressive European powers, Germany and Italy, to fight in WWII.