Chapter 29 and 30 Study Guide
Apartheid - Between 1910 and 1940, whites strengthened their grip on South Africa. They imposed a system of racial segregation
to ensure white economic power.
Civil disobedience – Gandhi used the works of Henry David Thoreau, an American philosopher of the 1800s who believed
civil disobedience, or the refusal to obey unjust laws.
Diego Rivera – A young Spanish painter who studied in different types of paintings in Europe. He added a bold new style
that drew on Mexican folk art.
Hirohito – Hirohito was a Japanese emperor who reigned from 1926 to 1989. He led Japan on a militaristic and expansionist
path that would eventually engulf all of Asia.
Jiang Jieshi – He took over the Guomindang after Sun’s death in 1925. In 1926, he began a march into northern
China, crushing warlords and Chinese Communist parties.
Muhammad Ali Jinrah - During the 1930’s, the Muslim League gained an able leader in this man; like Gandhi, he came from
a middle class background and had studied law in England.
Nationalization – Nationalization permitted the breakup of large estates, placed restrictions on foreigners owning land,
and allowed nationalization, which is also known as the government invasion of natural resources.
Pancho Villa – He lead the attack and killed seventeen Americans in New Mexico, and even though the United States felt
justified in these actions, it encouraged violent anti-Yankee attitudes in Latin America.
Cause of the 1910 Mexico Revolution – Peasants wanted land, workers and miners wanted more high wages, and middle class
liberals wanted a democracy instead of the Diaz dictatorship.
Pan-Africanism - A movement that was started in the 1920’s. Pan-Africanism emphasized the unity of Africans and people
of Africans and people of African descent around the world.
Mandate System (M. East) - Territories administered by European nations, set up by the Paris Peace Conference outraged Arabs
because they were promised independence after WWII.
Great Salt March - Gandhi offered a bold defiance towards Britain in 1930. He and 78 other followers marched 240 miles to
the Red Sea in hopes to end the British salt domination.
May Fourth Movement - The May Fourth Movement was an attempt of China to end foreign domination in hopes to adopting western
ideas and traditions.
Effect of Great Depression in Japan - Japan's economy was distressed by the effects of the Great Depression and this created
a hunger for expansion and in increase in military.
General strike - A strike held by many different types of workers all at once. In 1926, 3 million workers in Britain were
a part of a general strike, it lasted for 9 days.
Stream of consciousness – In this type of technique, a writer probes a character’s random thoughts and feelings
without imposing any logic or order.
Flapper – The reigning queen of the Jazz Age was the liberated young woman called the flapper. The first flappers were
American, but European sisters soon adopted the fashion.
Concentration camp – Tens of thousands of Jews were sent to concentration camps, detention centers for civilians considered
enemies of a state.
Leon Blum – In 1936, several parties on the left united behind the socialist leader Leon Blum. His popular Front government
tried to solve labor problems and passed some social legislation.
Marie Curie - A Polish-born French scientist, she experimented with radioactivity. She discovered that radioactivity was
able to change one element into another, and thus proving that atoms are neither solid nor indivisible.
Franklin D. Roosevelt - Franklin D. Roosevelt was the president of the United States in 1932. He was the creator of the New
Deal, a massive group of economic and social programs.
Virginia Woolf – She was a British writer who experimented with a technique called steam of consciousness to explore
the hidden thoughts of people as they go through the ordinary actions of their everyday life.
Albert Einstein – By 1905, the German-born physicist Albert Einstein advanced his theories or relativity.
James Joyce – An Irish novelist who explored the mind of a hero who remains sound asleep throughout the novel, Finnegan’s
Pablo Picasso - He was a Spanish artist, who originally drew realistic paintings. Then in later years, he began to experiment
with different styles and became the creator of the cubism.
Joseph Pilsudski – By 1926, He had become dictator if Poland and like Hitler, he promised order and won the backing
of the military and wealthy.
Frank Lloyd Wright – The American architect Frank Lloyd Wright reflected the Bauhaus beliefs that the function of a
building should determine its form.
Kellog-Briand Pact – Almost every independent nation in the world signed onto this agreement, promising to “renounce
war as an instrument of nation policy.”
Fascism – Mussolini coined the term, but fascists had no single unifying set of beliefs, as Marxists did. The term is
used to describe any authoritarian government that is not communist.
Adolph Hitler - Adolph Hitler was the leader of the Nazi party and the dictator of Germany. His goal was to eliminate all
Totalitarian rule - Totalitarian rule is rule under a one-party dictatorship. Communism and fascism are the most common type
of government; Hitler was a dictator of a communism government.
Mein Kampf - Mein Kampf was the name of the book that Adolph Hitler wrote while he was in prison. The title translates to
"My Struggle," and it told about Hitler's anti-Semitic outlooks.
Campaign against the Jews - Hitler used the Jews as a scapegoat so he could gain support of Germany after the lost in WWI.
Hitler’s goal was to exterminate all the Jews and sub-Aryan race.
Great Depression – The Great Depression was a major economic downfall that affected the entire world. A single stock
market crash in the U.S. was blamed for the disaster.
Mussolini – The son of socialist blacksmith and devoutly religious schooling teacher, and he organized veterans and
other discontented Italians into the Fascist party in 1919.
Weimar Republic – The German democratic government created after WWI, the constitution set up a parliamentary form of
government led by a prime minister.
Kristallnacht - Kristallnacht is translated into “the night of broken glass.” It was a massive riot in the night
where Nazi-led mobs attacked Jews.
List causes of Great Depression – Crash of the stock market and mass production of goods selling at a high price.