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Andrew Kokanoutranon

World History Standards
WWII Cause and Effects
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10.1 Students relate the moral and ethical principles in ancient Greek and Roman philosophy, in Judaism, and in Christianity to the development of Western political thought.

The morals and ethical principles in Greek/Roman and Judaism/Christianity shaped Western political thoughts in many ways. In the Grecian days, city-states such as Athens and Rome practiced a democracy. They invented the democracy because they thought it was the “perfect” system. Democracy is still used today in the U.S government. The basis of the laws from both the Grecian and Judaism/Christianity are still used, such as the 10 Commandments and the Divine Rights of Kings.

1. Analyze the similarities and differences in Judeo-Christian and Greco-Roman views of law, reason and faith, and duties of the individual.

Judeo-Christian and Greco-Roman views of life are very similar but yet have many differences. Judeo-Christians were plentiful during the Middle Ages; they ranged from the Monarchs to the peasants. The Monarchs ruled by the word of God, unlike the Greco-Romans, who ruled by the power of the Emperor. Their laws were similar in the case of power to the people. Both their reasons were similar, they wanted to conquer land and convert people into their own beliefs. The Greeks believed in many gods and the Judeo-Christians believed in one God. Greco-Roman citizens were born to fight in war, and in the Judeo-Christian period, each person was in a ladder system -from peasant to monarch- they all have a part in society.

2. Trace the development of the Western political ideas of the rule of law and illegitimacy of tyranny, using selections from Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Politics.

Plato and Aristotle’s ideas and beliefs of democracy were very similar. They were suspicious of the Athenian democracy at the time. They both believed that a single strong and virtuous ruler would be the best choice in running a government. Plato and Aristotle both believed that the state should regulate almost all of the aspects of its citizens’ lives in order to provide for their best interest. If things had gone both Plato’s and Aristotle’s way, the western political system would be quite different form what it is day; because they both disagreed to democracy and favored a monarchy.

3. Consider the influence of the U.S. Constitution on political systems in the contemporary world.

The U.S Constitution influenced the political systems on the modern world in many ways. The Constitution is a good example for developing nations to follow. It contains many basic ideas from the Grecian times, which includes the fundamental laws and system of democracy. The U.S. government is rooted from the Athenian democracy, many similar ideas are found in both. Nations in he modern world following the U.S government may become strong and powerful because of the effectiveness of the democracy.

10.2 Students compare and contrast the Glorious Revolution of England, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution and their enduring effects worldwide on the political expectations for self-government and individual liberty.

The Glorious Revolution of England, American Revolution, and French Revolution all had rebels that wanted their own kind of government and freedom. The Revolution of England was an overthrow of a king. The American Revolution was an attempt of rebels in the South trying to separate from the North. The French Revolution was an overthrow of a monarchy into a new system of democracy. All the rebellions lead to a better government system. The Revolution of England and France were an overthrow of Kings and Monarchs instead of a civil war.

1. Compare the major ideas of philosophers and their effects on the democratic revolutions in England, the United States, France, and Latin America (e.g., John Locke, Charles-Louis Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Simón Bolívar, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison).

Locke, Charles-Louis, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Bolívar, Jefferson, and Madison were all great thinkers that shaped the modern world’s democracy. Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau were the philosophers that influenced Jefferson and Madison to create the American democracy when the colonist won the war against the British. Jefferson and Madison were the thinkers whom influenced Charles-Louis during his fight against in the French Revolution. Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau were the thinkers that shaped the English revolution from being a monarchy to a democratic country. Simón Bolívar was a leader in the fight for Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador; he was influenced by all of the philosophers in the earlier years.

2. List the principles of the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights (1689), the American Declaration of Independence (1776), the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (1789), and the U.S. Bill of Rights (1791).

The Magna Carta states that the English Monarchs cannot have absolute power and it gives the Monarchs a limit of power. The English Bill of Rights states certain rights that citizens of a free democratic society should have under the laws of that particular society. The American Declaration of Independence is a document that declares the thirteen colonies independent from the British. The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen is a set of individual rights and collective rights of the people that was adopted after the French Revolution. The U.S. Bill of Rights is another name for the first ten amendments of the United States.

3. Understand the unique character of the American Revolution, its spread to other parts of the world, and its continuing significance to other nations.

The American Revolution was a unique and influencing act of rebellion. The colonist longed for independence from the British rule. The Americans at the time were very weak and they seemed to have little to no chance of wining against the English. The American army consisted of local militia men and the British had the strongest navy in the world. The Americans were fortunate enough to persuade the French to ally with them and this was the pivotal point during the war, with the help of the French army the Americans were able to defeat the British in 1781. The colonist then developed a new constitution that had influences from Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau. The colonists wanted a government that was not over powering like the British, and they wanted the government to be a lot more lenient to its citizens. The American’s victory helped influence mostly all the democratic countries today, The American’s constitution is said to be the most liberal government and from that, other countries are able to copy from it and develop a strong untied government.

4. Explain how the ideology of the French Revolution led France to develop from constitutional monarchy to democratic despotism to the Napoleonic Empire.

The French citizens believed that the abolishment of the constitutional monarchy would lead to a better and freer lifestyle. When the monarchy fell, the National Convention took its place; the new French Republic allowed its citizens to vote and abolished the titles of nobility. The national convention entered its third stage, the Constitution set up a five man Directory and a two house legislature elected by male citizens. The Directory was a weak dictatorship, so it turned to the military hero, Napoleon Bonaparte; they wanted to use him to advance their own goals but miscalculated. Within two years Napoleon accumulated enough power to take the title Emperor of France. The Napoleonic Empire reformed and modernized France unlike the Directory tried to do before. The Napoleonic Empire was very strong, until Napoleon lost in Russia, the Russians allied with the British, Austria, and Prussia to destroy the French Empire. Napoleon was forced to step down from the throne of Emperor.

5. Discuss how nationalism spread across Europe with Napoleon but was repressed for a generation under the Congress of Vienna and Concert of Europe until the Revolutions of 1848.

Napoleon was able to create a sense of nationalism for the citizens of France during his reign. He conquered many new lands and won many battles against the neighboring countries. Napoleon also created many new enemies during this process of invading new lands. Napoleon caused the Russian, British, Austrians, and the Prussians to ally with one another and take down the Napoleonic Empire. The Congress of Vienna took the place of the French leaders and created many new laws for the French people. The Congress of Vienna took away much of the French’s land and gave it back to the Russians, British, and Austrians. The Congress of Vienna and Concert of Europe were the groups of European’s great powers, the Concert of Europe were the co-operations of the Congress of Vienna. The two groups maintained and established the new French laws. It was until 1848; the French people rebelled against the King and established a second republican.
10.3 Students analyze the effects of the Industrial Revolution in England, France, Germany, Japan, and the United States.
Industrial revolution blossomed all over the European countries and the Americas. The Industrial Revolution of England was the first major revolution of its kind during that time period. The Agricultural Revolution caused many farmers and workers to urbanize, moving from farms and the country side to more populated towns and cities to find more work. The Agricultural Revolution created new tools used for farming, better inventions led to more efficient farming machines which led to fewer workers on the farm. The Industrial Revolution followed in France and Germany a few years later. Britain’s growth in the revolution was due to the proficient source of natural resources, but France didn’t have the abundances of natural resources like the British so their growth was not as rapid. On the other hand, Germany’s growth was even more rapid and staggering than that of Britain because they had even more abundant resources. The United States also followed the path towards Industrial Revolution; they were in the top ranks of the amount of production put out.
1. Analyze why England was the first country to industrialize.
England was the first country to industrialize because of the many inventions during that time in Britain. Britain used its new inventions to its advantages. It outlawed the exportation of the new inventions. The other countries just industrializing had a lack of new inventions for this reason; their growth was slower and delayed. Britain stayed the world’s industrial giant for almost 100 years. Britain was also the first country to industrialize due partly to its natural resources, it had all the need resources to grow and urbanize. It used up a lot of its resources during this time and leaving little for future generations.
2. Examine how scientific and technological changes and new forms of energy brought about massive social, economic, and cultural change (e.g., the inventions and discoveries of James Watt, Eli Whitney, Henry Bessemer, Louis Pasteur, and Thomas Edison).
New inventions and technology brought on many new changes in everyday and industrial life. The invention of the steamboat by James Watt created an easier way of transportation. Trade prospered rapidly once the steamboat was put into use, what once took days to travel by a boat without an engine now took just hours with engines. Other inventions such as the Dynamo, created by Michael Faraday, and the spinning mule, created by Samuel Crompton, were used in factories to create mass production of goods. The Dynamo can power up a factory and run cities as well. The spinning mule help factory works to weave easier rather than weaving by hand. Both these inventions help the industrial revolution, but it also created a downfall for middle and lower class workers. They work even harder than they had before, they work longer hours with limited pay because goods could be mass produced easily.
3. Describe the growth of population, rural to urban migration, and growth of cities associated with the Industrial Revolution.
The growth of cities was great. After the Agricultural Revolution, a mass of farmers and workers from the farm moved to towns to look for more work because the revolution created a new trend of technology that required less people to work the farming tools and machines. The workers moved into towns, which later became cites and in time became large industrial cities with the abilities to mass produce anything.
4. Trace the evolution of work and labor, including the demise of the slave trade and the effects of immigration, mining and manufacturing, division of labor, and the union movement.
As factories grow larger, many of its workers are paying a toll. At first, workers weren’t required to work as much as they did in later years, but as inventions and technology grew better, workers were forced to work longer hours with limited pay. Slave trade helped the factories to produce more goods and wasn’t illegal at the time. Children and immigrates were forced to work in unsatisfactory work conditions with little to no pay. Children were often put to work by their parents because of financial problems within the family. As conditions worsen, the government outlawed children slave trade and workers, but the workers still faced unsanitary conditions. The workers would later form a Union and go on strike from their jobs, asking for more pay and less hours. This union movement forced large corporations to take actions and compromise with the workers.
5. Understand the connections among natural resources, entrepreneurship, labor, and capital in an industrial economy.
The natural resources played a huge role in the development of the Industrial Revolution. The factories in the developing cities took up a lot of its countries’ natural resources, such as coal and wood used to power the machinery. Large factories and businesses could have profited a huge sum of money during this time period because of free enterprise. The government wasn’t in control of any of the businesses so it could have profited more money. The business owners also could have profited a lot from the workers; the owners weren’t required to pay minimum wage to their employees. This was a catch 22 for the workers because they were paid little to no money, but they had no choice but to work.
6. Analyze the emergence of capitalism as a dominant economic pattern and the responses to it, including Utopianism, Social Democracy, Socialism, and Communism.
The emergence of capitalism created new ideals of government as conditions of the middle and lower classes worsen. By 1800, Jeremy Bentham was preaching utilitarianism, the idea that the goal of society should be “the greatest happiness for the greatest number” of its citizens. He strongly supported individual freedom, which he believed ensured happiness. He also favored the idea of a free market, the unrestricted competition in a laissez faire economy. Other thinkers focused on the good of society in general. They condemned the evils of industrial capitalism, which they believed had created a gulf between rich and poor. To end poverty and injustice, they offered the idea of socialism, which people as whole rather than private individuals would own and operate the “means of production” – the farms, factories, railways, and other large businesses that produced and distributed goods. Karl Marx offered the idea of communism, which a form of socialism that sees class struggles between employers and employees as inevitable; the good of the society is put first rather than the citizens.
7. Describe the emergence of Romanticism in art and literature (e.g., the poetry of William Blake and William Wordsworth), social criticism (e.g., the novels of Charles Dickens), and the move away from Classicism in Europe.
From about 1750 to 1850, romanticism shaped western literature and arts. Romantic writes, artists, and composers rebelled against the Enlightenment emphasis on reason. Using new verse form, bold colors, or the swelling sounds of orchestra, romantics sought to excite strong emotions. The poetry of William Black and William Wordsworth focused on the political world. William Wordsworth wrote about how the start of the French Revolution stirred feelings of joy and hope. Other supporters of romanticism included an English novelist by the name of Charles Dickens who vividly portrayed the lives of slum dwellers and factory workers through a new artistic movement called realism, which was an attempt to represent the world as it was without the sentiment associated with romanticism. Radical new styles such as romanticism, realism, impressionism were all steps taken to move away from the classicism in Europe at the time, and with the help of the enlightenment, which created a new way of thinking, moved the artistic world into a different phase far from classicism.
10.4 Students analyze patterns of global change in the era of New Imperialism in at least two of the following regions or countries: Africa, Southeast Asia, China, India, Latin America, and the Philippines.
The rise of the Western world created numerous opportunities for the dominating countries to imperialize. Africa was probably the hardest hit country to deal with imperialism because it was a huge continent and had a huge number of natural recourses, which was one of the reasons why the Western world wanted to imperialize Africa in the first place. Europe prospered from Africa by enslaving African tribes and putting them to work. The Berlin Conference gave the word for Europe to colonize Africa and spit up the different African countries and within 20 years, the European powers partitioned almost the entire continent, only Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent. By 1914, France and Britain were the two European countries to colonize most of Africa. Britain also imperialized India and by the mid 1800s, it controlled three fifths of India. It saw India as a market and a source of raw materials, so it industrialized the nation for the good of Britain and not India.
1. Describe the rise of industrial economies and their link to imperialism and colonial-ism (e.g., the role played by national security and strategic advantage; moral issues raised by the search for national hegemony, Social Darwinism, and
As nations become more and more industrialized, a need to expand overcomes many of the European nations and Japan. By the 1800s, Europe had developed politically and economically. Strong, centrally governed nations had emerged. The Industrial Revolutions greatly strengthened European economies, and westerners had a new sense of confidence in themselves. Europeans embarked on a path of aggressive expansion for economic interests, political and military interests, humanitarian and religious goals, and social Darwinism – an idea that states European races were superior to all others.
2. Discuss the locations of the colonial rule of such nations as England, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Portugal, and the United States.
England gained colonial rule of almost half of Africa. The British controlled Egypt, Nigeria, Gold Coast, British East Africa, Northern Rhodesia, and many more in Africa, India, and China. France also controlled a large portion of Africa such as the French West Africa, Algeria, and French Equatorial Africa. They also controlled a small portion in China. Germany, Italy, and Spain also controlled a part of Africa but not as much as the British and France.
3. Explain imperialism from the perspective of the colonizers and the colonized and the varied immediate and long-term responses by the people under colonial rule.
The colonizers such as Britain, France, and Japan all thought the idea of imperialism was best for everyone. The countries imperializing would get more resources and land, and the countries being colonized would get a better life and a more industrialized nation. On the other hand, the people under colonial rule were outraged and hated the fact of being ruled over by invaders. They wanted to keep traditional ways and customs for the sake of the tribe rather than be modernized. As time went on, their thoughts and beliefs changed as colonial rule became used to. They soon later accepted the fact that they were going to be ruled over by invaders and took in new ideas and customs. They were also modernized, roads, schools, and industry flourished during this period.
4. Describe the independence struggles of the colonized regions of the world, including the roles of leaders, such as Sun Yat-sen in China, and the roles of ideology and religion.
China was one of a hand full of countries that actually flourished without the help of colonization. China exported more goods to the Europeans and to the Western world than it was importing goods from them. As the Chinese enjoyed the favorable balance of trade, the European countries had a trade deficit with China, buying more from the China than they sold them. By the late 1700s, China entered a period of decline and an industrial revolution created a need for expanded markets for European goods. The West took advantage of this and won the Opium war causing the Chinese to sign unequal treaties that forces them to open more ports for trade and they had to pay a huge indemnity for losing.
10.5 Students analyze the causes and course of the First World War.
World War I was caused by numerous reasons. Causes such as imperialist and economic rivalries among European powers, European alliance system, Militarism and arms race, nationalist tensions in Balkans, Austria-Hungary annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, fighting in the Balkans, assassination of the archduke, and German invasion of Belgium all led up to the start of the WWI. The war took a toll on all the countries fighting in it, but mostly the Central powers because they were forced to pay for the damages and were weakened greatly by the lost. Other effects of the war include enormous cost in lives and money, Russian revolution, creation of new nations in Eastern Europe, requirement that Germany pay reparations, German lost of overseas colonies, Balfour Declaration, League of Nations, economic impart of war debts on Europe, emergence of U.S. and Japan as important powers, rise of fascism, and WWII.
1. Analyze the arguments for entering into war presented by leaders from all sides of the Great War and the role of political and economic rivalries, ethnic and ideological conflicts, domestic discontent and disorder, and propaganda and nationalism in mobilizing the civilian population in support of "total war."
Fear and distrust led the great powers to protect themselves through alliances. Nation signed treaties pledging to defend each other. These alliances were intended to create powerful combinations that no one would dare attack. In 1872, Germany joined a weak alliance with Austrian-Hungary and Russia. Germany later created an alliance with Austrian-Hungary and Italy ten years later. The allies consisted of France, Britain, and Russia; all of the allies signed under a “friendly understanding” treaty.
2. Examine the principal theaters of battle, major turning points, and the importance of geographic factors in military decisions and outcomes (e.g., topography, waterways, distance, and climate).
World War I was one of the most brutal wars to fight in because of the fighting styles, terrain, and cruel weapons. Soldiers were faced with trench warfare which often led to long stalemates. In 1916, both the Allies and Central Powers launched massive offensives to break the stalemate. The German forces tried to overwhelm the French at Verdun, which was unsuccessful and cost many lives on both sides. An Allied offensive at the Somme River was even more costly, killing over 60,000 British soldiers. In 1914, the Russian armies suffered the worst defeat in the war, mostly due to lack of weapons and equipment. By 1918, Lenin had pulled Russia out of the war leaving the allies weak on the Eastern Front, but the United States joined the Allies in 1917 to help fight against the Germans for destroying American ships. In the end, the Allies were the victors and the Central Powers suffered greatly for that.
3. Explain how the Russian Revolution and the entry of the United States affected the course and outcome of the war.
The Allies favored the United States entry but was discontent about Russia’s leap of absents. The Russians played a crucial role in the war because they occupied the Eastern Front, which made the Central Powers worry about both of their sides instead of just the Western Front. At first, the Allies welcomed the overthrow of the czar. They hoped Russia would institute a democratic government and become a stronger ally. But later that year, when Lenin came to power, he promised to pull Russian troops out of the war. In 1918, Lenin signed the Treaty of Brest Litovsk, which ended Russian participation in the war. Later in the war, the United States entered and raised troop moral. The United States were, in a way, forced to join because they didn’t want a German-Mexican alliance. The Germans also destroyed American ships that were carrying civilians. President Wilson also wanted to utilize the Fourteen Points, which would end this war and future wars.
4. Understand the nature of the war and its human costs (military and civilian) on all sides of the conflict, including how colonial peoples contributed to the war effort.
The Great War was the largest war in history up to that time. The French mobilized almost 8.5 million troops, the British 9 million, the Russians 12 million, and the Germans 11 million. By the end of the war, the human and material costs of war were staggering. More than 8.5 million people were dead. Double that number had been wounded, many handicapped for life. Famine threatened many regions. The devastation was made even worse in 1918 by a deadly epidemic. PAGE 710

5. Discuss human rights violations and genocide, including the Ottoman government's actions against Armenian citizens.
In 1915 the Young Turk government resolved to deport the whole Armenian population of about 1,750,000 to Syria and Mesopotamia. It considered the Turkish Armenians—despite pledges of loyalty by many—as a dangerous foreign element bent on conspiring with the pro-Christian tsarist enemy to upset the Ottoman campaign in the east. In what would later be known as the “first genocide” of the 20th century, hundreds of thousands of Armenians were driven from their homes, massacred, or marched until they died. The death toll of Armenians in Turkey has been estimated at between 600,000 and 1,500,000 in the years from 1915 to 1923. Tens of thousands emigrated to Russia, Lebanon, Syria, France, and the United States, and the western part of the historical homeland of the Armenian people was emptied of Armenians.
10.6 Students analyze the effects of the First World War.
World War I was caused by numerous reasons. Causes such as imperialist and economic rivalries among European powers, European alliance system, Militarism and arms race, nationalist tensions in Balkans, Austria-Hungary annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, fighting in the Balkans, assassination of the archduke, and German invasion of Belgium all led up to the start of the WWI. The war took a toll on all the countries fighting in it, but mostly the Central powers because they were forced to pay for the damages and were weakened greatly by the lost. Other effects of the war include enormous cost in lives and money, Russian revolution, creation of new nations in Eastern Europe, requirement that Germany pay reparations, German lost of overseas colonies, Balfour Declaration, League of Nations, economic impart of war debts on Europe, emergence of U.S. and Japan as important powers, rise of fascism, and WWII.
1. Analyze the aims and negotiating roles of world leaders, the terms and influence of the Treaty of Versailles and Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points, and the causes and effects of the United States's rejection of the League of Nations on world politics.
World War I was an international conflict that in 1914–18 embroiled most of the nations of Europe along with Russia, the United States, the Middle East, and other regions. The war was the Central Powers against the Allies from 1917, the United States. It ended with the defeat of the Central Powers. The war was practically the first-time in the slaughter, carnage, and destruction it caused in a modern era. The war led to the fall the Central powers, resulted in the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, and ultimately led to World War II. Total war is military conflict in which the contenders are willing to make any sacrifice in lives and other resources to obtain a complete victory, as distinguished from limited war. Throughout history, limitations on the scope of warfare have been more economic and social than political. Simple territorial aggrandizement has not, for the most part, brought about total commitments to war. The most deadly conflicts have been fought on ideological grounds in revolutions and civil and religious wars.

2. Describe the effects of the war and resulting peace treaties on population movement, the international economy, and shifts in the geographic and political borders of Europe and the Middle East.
World War I ended on the wrong foot and was ultimately a pointless war. The economic burdens of the European governments were multiplied when they had to restore many of the areas hardest hit, to pay pensions to the wounded and to the relatives of the dead and to pay the interest due on the public and foreign debts. The economy of the European governments, trade and industry did not revive after the war. There was mass unemployment in Italy, Germany, Britain and France shortly after the war. The immediate result was that in Italy the people were so discontented with their government that they overthrew it. Eight of Wilson's Fourteen Points dealt with specific political and territorial settlements. The rest of them set forth general principles aimed at preventing future wars. The last point proposed the establishment of an international association to maintain the peace.
3. Understand the widespread disillusionment with prewar institutions, authorities, and values that resulted in a void that was later filled by totalitarians.
The communist and totalitarian governments gave their people a sense of nationalism and made it clear that the only way to have to power is to go to war. Totalitarianism is a form of government in which the state has absolute control over almost every aspect of people's lives. The individual is considered a servant of the state and is allowed almost no freedom of choice or expression. A totalitarian government is ruled by one political party headed by, in most cases, a dictator. The party sets certain economic and social goals for the state, and it outlaws any activity that could interfere with the achievement of these goals. Most totalitarian governments prohibit such groups as labor unions and trade associations. Religious practices are forbidden unless they promote the policies of the state. Under a totalitarian system, the government uses terror tactics to suppress individuals or groups who oppose the state. These tactics are carried out by a secret police force and the armed services. The government also uses censorship to silence anyone who criticizes its policies. The media spread government propaganda, and the schools teach absolute loyalty to the state.
4. Discuss the influence of World War I on literature, art, and intellectual life in the West (e.g., Pablo Picasso, the "lost generation" of Gertrude Stein, Ernest Hemingway).
Picasso's first original style has been called the Blue Period. The paintings of this period evoke feelings of sorrow and disaffection through the depiction of forlorn people in shades of blue.. Hemingway also created a type of male character, sometimes called the Hemingway hero, who faces violence and destruction with courage. The trait of "grace under pressure"--that is, what appears to be unemotional behavior even in dangerous situations--is part of what became known as the Hemingway code. In 1918, he served as a Red Cross volunteer in Italy, driving an ambulance and working at a canteen. After working in Italy for six weeks, he was seriously wounded. Hemingway's wartime experiences help suggest why his writing emphasizes physical and mental aggression and the need for courage.

10.7 Students analyze the rise of totalitarian governments after World War I.
Totalitarian governments flourished during the post World War I era. Russian revolution led to the demolishment of the czar and parliamentary government and created a path way for the socialist extremists to enter and take control. The Soviets took advantage of the opportunity and placed Lenin in charge of the government. He purposed a new radical idea called Marxism. Lenin called for an elite group to lead the revolution and set up a “dictatorship of the proletariat.” Through this revolutionary party represented a small percentage of socialists, the Bolsheviks. Stalin later took the role of leader in Russia and creates a communist state and modernized Russia drastically. He turned Russia inside out and made drastic changes which eventually led to the better.
1. Understand the causes and consequences of the Russian Revolution, including Lenin's use of totalitarian means to seize and maintain control (e.g., the Gulag).
The Russian Revolution destroyed the czar’s reign and bloodline. The soviets and other conspirators overthrew the parliament and took measures into their own hands. They slowly overthrew the government and won the support of the people. The Russian citizens thought they were gaining freedom and control but in fact it was the exact opposite. Under Stalin’s reign, conditions changed drastically and Russia was turned inside out and modernized. Stalin turned the Soviet Union into a Totalitarian state, a one party dictatorship that attempts to control and regulate every aspect of the lives of its citizens. To ensure obedience, Stalin’s Communist party used secret police, censorship, and terror. Using modern technology, the party bombarded the public with propaganda. Atheism became the official policy of the state and all other religions were not tolerated.
2. Trace Stalin's rise to power in the Soviet Union and the connection between economic policies, political policies, the absence of a free press, and systematic violations of human rights (e.g., the Terror Famine in Ukraine).
Stalin was in a battle with Trotsky for the leadership of Russia. After Lenin’s death, Stalin claimed the throne by having comrades in the high rankings and overthrowing Trotsky. Stalin established the 5 year plan which set out to make the Soviet Union into a modern industrial power. The Union developed a command economy, in which the government made all basic economic decisions. Stalin turned the Soviet Union into a Totalitarian state, a one party dictatorship that attempts to control and regulate every aspect of the lives of its citizens. To ensure obedience, Stalin’s Communist party used secret police, censorship, and terror. Using modern technology, the party bombarded the public with propaganda. Atheism became the official policy of the state and all other religions were not allowed and will not have been accepted.
3. Analyze the rise, aggression, and human costs of totalitarian regimes (Fascist and Communist) in Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union, noting especially their common and dissimilar traits.
Hitler and the Nazis led Germany and created a path for other governments around the pre-WWII era. Germany experienced political and economic defeat after its crush in World War I. A democratic government had replaced the monarchy that ruled the country, but the nation suffered from severe inflation and unemployment after the war ended. An organization called the German Workers' Party, a small discussion group in Munich. Hitler joined this group in 1919 and quickly gained control. He changed its name to the National Socialist German Workers' Party in 1920. Nazi stands for the first word in the German name of the party. Fascism resembles Communism, but unlike Communism, fascism allows industry to remain in private ownership though under government control. Other important features of fascism include extreme patriotism, warlike policies, and persecution of minorities. The word fascism also describes any governmental system or political belief that resembles those of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler. Fascist governments ruled Italy under Mussolini from 1922 to 1943, and Germany under Hitler from 1933 to 1945. Fascism has varied from country to country. This article discusses fascism mainly as it existed in Italy under Mussolini and in Germany under Hitler.
10.8 Students analyze the causes and consequences of World War II.
Many factors contributed to World War II. Axis aggression and democracies that have adopted a policy of appeasement contributed to the cause. Hitler and the Nazis were not stopped before it was too late. Hitler called for genocide of Jews; the Jews in Hitler’s eyes were the evilness of everything. Hitler used the Jews as a scapegoat for Germany’s faults in the past years (WWI and economic depression).
1. Compare the German, Italian, and Japanese drives for empire in the 1930s, including the 1937 Rape of Nanking, other atrocities in China, and the Stalin-Hitler Pact of 1939.
Challenges to peace followed a pattern throughout the 1930s. Dictators took aggressive action but met only verbal protests and pleas for peace from democracies. Japanese military leaders and ultra nationalists felt that Japan should have an empire equal to those of the western powers. In pursuit of this goal, Japan seized Manchuria in 1931, and when the League of Nations condemned the aggression, Japan withdrew form the organization. In Italy, Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in 1935. The League of Nations voted sanctions against Italy, but it was not enforced. Hitler sent troops into Rhineland which was another treaty violation. By doing so, Hitler challenged the Versailles Treaty and gained popularity in Germany. Hitler also signed a treaty with Russia declaring that Germany will not attack Russia.
2. Understand the role of appeasement, nonintervention (isolationism), and the domestic distractions in Europe and the United States prior to the outbreak of World War II.
The role of Appeasement is giving in to the demands of an aggressor in order to keep the peace. Western democracies disliked the actions that Hitler and the other communist states were making but took little offensive to it. France wanted British support for a move against Hitler, but they feared that another war would spark.. The United States passed some neutrality acts: one outlawed the sale of arms to any nation at war, and the other to outlaw loans to warring nations. These decisions were mainly to stay out of the war not to prevent such a conflict. A Rome-Berlin-Tokyo axis was formed which meant that these three nations would fight Soviet communism yet not interfere with one another’s plans for expansion.
3. Identify and locate the Allied and Axis powers on a map and discuss the major turning points of the war, the principal theaters of conflict, key strategic decisions, and the resulting war conferences and political resolutions, with emphasis on the importance of geographic factors.
The pact between Stalin and Hitler did not last long, once Nazi troops attack Russia, Germany faced a war against two fronts. Great Britain and France declared war on Germany on Sept. 3, 1939, two days after the invasion of Poland. But the two countries stood by while Poland collapsed. France moved troops to the Maginot Line, a belt of steel and concrete fortresses it had built after World War I along its border with Germany. Britain sent a small force into northern France. Germany stationed troops on the Siegfried Line, a strip of defenses Hitler built in the 1930's opposite the Maginot Line. The attack on Pearl Harbor set the turning point in the war when the U.S. declared war on Japan and the Axis forces.
4. Describe the political, diplomatic, and military leaders during the war (e.g., Winston Churchill, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Emperor Hirohito, Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, Joseph Stalin, Douglas MacArthur, Dwight Eisenhower).
Hitler’s ideal goals were to expand Germany, make Germans superior to all other people, strengthen nationalism, build up Germans economy, and exterminate the Jewish population. Churchill was a British politician who had long warned about the threat Nazi’s had to people around the world. Roosevelt found ways around the passed Neutrality acts to provide aid to Britain during the war. Roosevelt and Churchill met secretly to work out a plan of stopping the war. Stalin and the Soviet Union were at peace with Germany in the beginning and then moved to the Ally side. MacArther was a commanding general for the US. Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin were the Big Three who agreed to finish the war in Europe.
5. Analyze the Nazi policy of pursuing racial purity, especially against the European Jews; its transformation into the Final Solution; and the Holocaust that resulted in the murder of six million Jewish civilians.
Hitler called for genocide of Jews; the Jews in Hitler’s eyes were the evilness of everything. Hitler used the Jews as a scapegoat for Germany’s faults in the past years (WWI and economic depression). Hitler used the Jews to his advantage, not only did he win the support of millions, but he also used the Jews to work in factories and camps. He deported many of the Jews living in Germany to concentration camps, which they worked rigorously for years before the remaining prisoners were rescued at the end of the war.
6. Discuss the human costs of the war, with particular attention to the civilian and military losses in Russia, Germany, Britain, the United States, China, and Japan.
While the Allies celebrated victory, the appalling cost of the war began emerge. The global conflict had raged in Asia since Japan invaded China in 1937 and in Europe since 1939. It had killed as many as 75 million people world wide. In Europe, about 38 million people lost their lives. The Soviet Union suffered the worst casualties – more than 22 million dead. Britain lost 389,000 in the military and France lost 211,000 in the military also. The U.S. lost about 292,000 in the war. The Germans lost 2,850,000 troops and Japan lost 1,576,000 in the war. Italy lost the least about at a staggering 77,500.
10.9 Students analyze the international developments in the post-World World War II world.
1. Compare the economic and military power shifts caused by the war, including the Yalta Pact, the development of nuclear weapons, Soviet control over Eastern European nations, and the economic recoveries of Germany and Japan.
At the end of WWII, the Soviet Union helped freed many countries once controlled by Germany and Japan and the USSR have developed an understanding of nuclear and subatomic particles. The Soviet troops enabled the U.S.S.R. to set up Communist-controlled governments in several of these countries, including Bulgaria, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and North Korea. Winston Churchill, the former British prime minister, warned in 1946 that an "iron curtain" had descended across Europe, dividing Eastern Europe from Western Europe. Although supposedly independent, the Iron Curtain countries were actually Soviet satellites. The satellites had to follow Soviet foreign policy and adopt Communist political and economic practices.
2. Analyze the causes of the Cold War, with the free world on one side and Soviet client states on the other, including competition for influence in such places as Egypt, the Congo, Vietnam, and Chile.
The U.S. and the Soviet Union raced for influence in developing nations by offering goods to the nations. Such aid included economic and military aid to help in times of need. The head power wanted their countries ideals and ideology to be accepted in other countries. The new nations favored socialism because old leaders were usually capitalist. Vietnam was a hot spot for conflict where nations wanted to gain outside influence. Colonies and influence was almost forced on Egypt as Soviet and other European influences tried to have their way in Egypt as well as Chile during the Cold War. The Cold War occurred partially due to the want for imperialism and larger empires.
3. Understand the importance of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, which established the pattern for America's postwar policy of supplying economic and military aid to prevent the spread of Communism and the resulting economic and political competition in arenas such as Southeast Asia (i.e., the Korean War, Vietnam War), Cuba, and Africa.
The Truman Doctrine was utilized abruptly after World War II ended and the Cold war began between the Soviet Union and the U.S. and Britain. In 1946, the U.S. congress granted a loan to Great Britain that would help the United States to halt the upcoming war with the USSR and recover from WWII. Truman Doctrine allows the American Aid to any free nations who would resist Communist ways. Marshall Plan encouraged European nations to work together for economic recovery after World War II. In June 1947, the United States agreed to administer aid to Europe if the countries would meet to decide what they needed. It is called the Marshall Plan because Secretary of State George C. Marshall first suggested it.
4. Analyze the Chinese Civil War, the rise of Mao Tse-tung, and the subsequent political and economic upheavals in China (e.g., the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, and the Tiananmen Square uprising).
In 1958, Mao launched the Great Leap Forward. He urged people to make a superhuman effort to increase farm and industrial output. In an attempt to make agriculture more efficient, he created communes. A typical commune include several villages, thousands of acres of land, and up to 25,000 people. In 1966, Mao launched the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. Its goal was to purge China or “bourgeois” or non-revolutionary, tendencies. He urged young Chinese to experience revolution firsthand, as his generation had. By the late 1980s, some Chinese were demanding greater political freedom and in May 1989, demonstrators fought for their rights and thousands of them were killed in the Tiananmen Square massacre.
5. Describe the uprisings in Poland (1952), Hungary (1956), and Czechoslovakia (1968) and those countries' resurgence in the 1970s and 1980s as people in Soviet satellites sought freedom from Soviet control.
Poland was the Soviet Union’s most troublesome satellite. Like Hungarian and Czechs. Poles wanted greater freedom within the Soviet bloc. Stalin had clamped down hard on Poland. Communist persecution of the Roman Catholic Church, however, backfired. The Church became a rallying point for Poles opposed to the regime. By the late 1980s, the Soviet Union changed policy within the economic reforms. It legalized Solidarity and in 1929 the Soviet Union sponsored free elections. Solidarity candidates outpolled those of the Communist party. The new government began different, but peaceful, transition form socialism to a market economy. By the late 1989, a “democracy movement” was sweeping Eastern Europe.
6. Understand how the forces of nationalism developed in the Middle East, how the Holocaust affected world opinion regarding the need for a Jewish state, and the significance and effects of the location and establishment of Israel on world affairs.
In the Middle East, nationalism and imperialism continued to have a strong impact. In the 1920s and 1930s, Arab nationalists opposed European mandates. Iraq won freedom from Britain in 1932. After WWII, British and French mandate territories won complete independence as the nations of Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan. The Pan-Arab dream of a united Arab state founded as nations pursued individual goals. Yet their shared heritage linked Arabs across borders. Pan-Arabism survived in the Arab League, which promoted Arab solidarity in times of crisis and worked fro common economic goals. In 1917, Britain issued the Balfour Declaration, which expressed Britain's support for a national homeland for the Jews in Palestine. Britain was fighting to win control of Palestine from the Ottoman Empire as part of the war. The British hoped the declaration would rally Jewish leaders in Britain and the United States to support the British war efforts. At the same time, however, Britain promised independence to various Arab groups in the Middle East, hoping to gain their support against the Ottomans.
7. Analyze the reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union, including the weakness of the command economy, burdens of military commitments, and growing resistance to Soviet rule by dissidents in satellite states and the non-Russian Soviet republics.
Many reasons led to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Command economy did not work out efficiently and failed to produce enough income for the country. Military was the main objective of the Soviet Union, the government spent endless amounts of money to create the iron curtain and equip its troops. The Soviet’s rule was hated by many of its citizens and satellite states. Poland was the Soviet Union’s most troublesome satellite. Like Hungarian and Czechs. Poles wanted greater freedom within the Soviet bloc. Stalin had clamped down hard on Poland. Communist persecution of the Roman Catholic Church, however, backfired. The Church became a rallying point for Poles opposed to the regime. By the late 1980s, the Soviet Union changed policy within the economic reforms.
8. Discuss the establishment and work of the United Nations and the purposes and functions of the Warsaw Pact, SEATO, NATO, and the Organization of American States.
In 1995, the United States finally brought the warring parties to Dayton, Ohio. There, they hammered out a series of agreements, called the Dayton Accords. NATO forces were sent to Bosnia to implement the agreement the agreements. Progress in making the agreements work was slow and often unsatisfactory to Muslim, Serbs, or Croats. The Dayton Accords seemed the best hope for peace in a war torn land, but no one could predict whether the peace would survive over the long term.
10.10 Students analyze instances of nation-building in the contemporary world in at least two of the following regions or countries: the Middle East, Africa, Mexico and other parts of Latin America, and China.
Once in power, the Communists set out to turn China from a backward peasant society into a modern industrial nation. First, they had to overcome hunger, poverty, disease, and illiteracy. To build socialism and repair the economy, China nationalized all businesses. The government also drew up five-year plans designed to increase coal and steel output and develop heavy industry. With Soviet help, China built hydroelectric plants, railroads, and canals. To boost agriculture, Mao distributed land to peasants. He encouraged peasants to “speak bitterness” against landlords. Tens of thousands of landlords were attacked and killed. The government urged peasants to pool their land and labor more efficiently cooperative farms. Mao also reformed the society, launched The Great Leap Forward, went through the Cultural Revolution, and kept the Communist regime intact.
1. Understand the challenges in the regions, including their geopolitical, cultural, military, and economic significance and the international relationships in which they are involved.
China faced many challenges that threatened its well-being. Like Lenin in the Soviet Union, Mao Zedong built a one-party totalitarian state, with the Communist party supreme. Communist ideology replaced Confucian beliefs and traditional religions. The government attacked crime and corruption. It did away with the old landlord and business classes. In their places, peasants and workers were honored as the builders of the new China.
2. Describe the recent history of the regions, including political divisions and systems, key leaders, religious issues, natural features, resources, and population patterns.
China consisted of a communist party that controlled a lot if not all of its people’s lives. The dictator was a virtuous Mao Zedong, who turned China into an industrial power in time for the modern day. By 1981, Deng Xiaoping had set China on a new path. Deng was a practical reformer, more interested in raising output than in political purity. Deng backed a program called the Four Modernizations. It emphasized agriculture, industry, science, and defense. Deng welcomed foreign capital and technology. Investor from Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the West organized joint ventures with China. The government set up special enterprise zones where foreigners could own and operate industries.
3. Discuss the important trends in the regions today and whether they appear to serve the cause of individual freedom and democracy.
By the mid 1990s, China was a major industrial power. Population growth posed a challenge for the future. Since 1949, China’s population has more than doubled, to 1.2 billion. Such rapid growth strained the economy. In the 1980s, the government instituted a one-child-per-family policy. Parents who had only on child were given rewards, such as better housing or improved benefits. China continued to grapple with economic problems. State run-industry were often inefficient, but could not be closed without risking high unemployment and economic chaos.
10.11 Students analyze the integration of countries into the world economy and the information, technological, and communications revolutions (e.g., television, satellites, and computers).
Countries today have the luxury of modern technology. At the turn of the 19th century, technology improved greatly leading to a better life, better health care, and better jobs. Economy relies on technology to keep the companies going and increase production greatly. The television has changed the world greatly leading to a more reliable source for information rather than word of mouth. Satellites help with the space programs and acts as a detection system for storms and many other things. Computers are the greatest inventions of the 20th century, the world has benefited a lot from the invention and it is a household item.

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