Chapter 31 Outline
1. Early Challenges to World Peace
a. In pursuit of an empire equal to those of the western powers, Japan seized Manchuria in 1931 and when the League of Nations
condemned the aggression, Japan withdrew from the organization.
b. Mussolini sent his troops to invade Italy and was met with sanctions which were not enforced.
c. Hitler built up an army and sent his troops into the Rhineland; both actions were defiance of the Versailles Treaty.
2. The Spanish Civil War
a. In 1931, popular unrest against the old order forced the king to leave Spain and a republic was set up with a new and more
b. Communists demanded more radical reforms while the democratic wanted to be more conservative.
c. The Nazi leaders called the attack on Guernica an experiment to see what their new planes can do.
3. German Aggression Continues
a. Hitler, who believed in the superiority of German, or Aryan, “race,” thought that Germany had a right to conquer
the inferior of Slavs to the east.
b. In 1938, Hitler was ready to engineer the Anschluss, or Austria and Germany. He had forced the Austrian chancellor to appoint
Nazi to key cabinet posts.
c. The British and French gave the OK to Hitler to take over the Sudetenland from the Czechs.
4. The Plunge towards War
a. In August 1939, Hitler stunned the world by announcing a nonaggression pact with his great enemy – Stalin, head of
the Soviet Union.
b. Secretly, the two agreed not to fight if the other went to war and to divide up Poland and other parts of Eastern Europe
c. On September 1st, 1939, German forces stormed into Poland and two days later Britain and France declared war on Germany.
5. Why War Came
a. The Versailles Treaty had divide Europe into two – those who were satisfied with its terms and those who were not
b. Dreading war, the democracies hoped that diplomacy and compromise would right old wrongs and prevent further aggression.
c. If Britain and France had taken military actions, Hitler might have retreated
6. The First Onslaught
a. In September 1939, Nazi forces stormed into Poland, revealing the enormous power of Hitler’s blitzkrieg.
b. In the early parts of the war, Germany was able to capture Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, and Belgium.
c. Italy declared war on the French, who surrendered and had their country occupied by the Germans.
7. The Battle of Britain
a. Britain was the only Allie left in the war and the Germans were looking for a victory against them.
b. The Germans looked to weaken the British Air Force and blitz major targets such as London.
c. By June 1941, Hitler had abandoned Operation Sea Lion and looked towards the Russian front for an invasion.
8. Charging Ahead
a. In September 1940, Mussolini sent forces from Italy’s North African colony of Libya into Egypt.
b. In 1940, Italian forces invade Greece and were met with stiff resistance.
c. By 1941, the Axis powers controlled most of Western Europe.
9. Operation Barbarossa
a. In June 1941, Hitler embarked on Operation Barbarossa – the conquest of the Soviet Union
b. Hitler wanted to gain “living space” for Germans and to win control of regions rich in resources.
c. The Germans sent 3 million troops into Russia and the Russians lost about 2 and a half million troops trying to fend off
10. Growing American Involvement
a. When the war began in 1939, the United States declared its neutrality.
b. In early 1941, FDR convinced Congress to pass the Lend Lease Act.
c. FDR and Churchill issued the Atlantic Charter, which set goals for the war and for the post war.
11. Japan Attacks
a. To stop Japanese aggression, the United States banned the sale to Japan of war materials
b. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States declared war on the Germans, Italians, and Japanese
c. The Japanese took control of Allied colonies in the South Pacific
12. Occupied Lands
a. The Nazis began to send Slavs into German camps and then later torturing and killing prisoners
b. The most savage of all policies was Hitler’s program to kill Jews and other he judged “racially inferior,”
such as Slavs, Gypsies, and the mentally ill.
c. The Japanese wanted all of Asia just for them only
13. The Allied war Effort
a. Later when the United States entered the war the allied leaders met occasionally to explain their strategy together.
b. Axis powers and the Allies were committed to total war.
c. Under pressure of war even democratic governments limited the rights of citizens.
14. Turning Points
a. Throughout 1942 and 1943 the allies won several victories that would turn the tide of battle.
b. In Egypt, General Bernard Montgomery stopped Rommel’s advance during the long fierce battle of El Alamein.
c. Afterward, in 1942 American general Dwight Eisenhower took command of joint Anglo American force in Morocco and Algeria.
15. The Red Army Resists
a. German forces were stalled outside of Moscow and Stalingrad until in 1942 when Hitler aimed for Stalingrad.
b. Russia resisted the attacks and defended off Stalingrad but at a costly death toll.
c. After the battle of Stalingrad, Russia took offense and entered into Eastern Europe.
16. Invasion of France
a. By 1944 the Allies were at last ready to open the long awaited second front in Europe the invasion of France.
b. The Allies chose June 6 1944 for D Day which was the invasion of France.
c. In Paris French resistance forces rose up against the occupying Germans.
17. War in the Pacific
a. In May and June 1942, American warships and airplanes severely damaged two Japanese fleets during the battle of Coral Sea
and Midway, which weakened the Japanese army.
18. The Nazi Defeated
a. The Germans were going under round the clock bombings by the Allied forces.
b. In March, the Allies had crossed the Rhine into Western Germany.
c. Hitler too ridiculed talk of surrender if the war is to be lost he declared the nation also will be destroyed.
19. Defeat of Japan
a. By mid 1945, most of the Japanese navy and air force had been destroyed, yet Japan still had an army of 2 million.
b. Radical actions were made to save the Japanese homeland such as kamikaze pilots.
c. Truman warned the Japanese that if they did not surrender, they could expect “a rain of ruin from the air like of
which had never been seen on this earth.”
20. Looking Ahead
a. After the surrender of Japan, American forces occupied the smoldering ruins of Japan.
b. In Germany, the Allies had divided Hitler’s fallen into four zones of occupation – French, British, U.S., and
c. America and Russia would be involved in a ideological war.
21. Aftermath of War
a. In Europe, about 38 million people lost their lives, and about 75 million people world wide
b. At wartime meetings, the Allies had agreed that Axis leaders should be tried for “crimes against humanity.”
c. By exposing the savagery of the Axis regimes, they further discredited the Nazi, fascist, and militarist ideologies that
had led to the war.
22. The United Nations
a. In April 1945, delegates from 50 nations met in San Francisco to draft a charter for the United Nations
b. Its five permanent members – the United States, the Soviet Union, Britain, France, and China – all have the
right to veto any decision
23. The Crumbling Alliance
a. Conflicting ideologies and mutual distrust divide the former Allies and soon led to the conflict known as the Cold War.
b. Stalin wanted to spread communism into the area and create a buffer zone of friendly governments as a defense against Germany.
c. Eastern Europe was turned into communists and the west was turned into democracies
24. Containing Communism
a. Truman Doctrine – stated that Americans would resist Soviet expansion in Europe or elsewhere in the world.
b. The Truman Doctrine was rooted in the idea of containment, limiting communism to the areas already under Soviet control
c. Stalin was containment as “encirclement” by capitalist world that wanted to isolate the Soviet Union