Chapter 32 and 33 Outline
1. The Great Liberation
a. Postwar brought on the decline of the Western Imperialism and started the rise of independent among countries
b. Altogether, nearly 100 new countries emerged during this “great liberation.”
c. The needs and goals of developing nations transformed the postwar world; most joined the UN, where they can make decision
of great importance.
2. The Cold War Goes Global
a. To avoid superpower rivalry, many new nations chose to remain nonaligned – not allied with countries involved in
b. The Cold War ended suddenly in 1991 when the Soviet Union collapsed.
c. Ethnic groups within many countries pushed for autonomy and wanted to keep their identity
3. New Nations Seek Stability
a. In Africa, nations inherited random colonial borders that mixed together people with different languages, religions, and
b. Many of the new nations were shaken up by civil war.
c. Military or authoritarian leaders often took over the chaotic nation
4. The Shrinking Globe
a. Interdependence is the dependence of countries on goods, resources, and knowledge from other parts of the world.
b. The UN was set up as a forum for settling disputes.
c. The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund make loans to developing nations.
5. Enduring Issues
a. In 1968, a number of nations signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty agreeing to halt the spread of nuclear weapons.
b. Arms dealers’ traffic weapons into conflicting nations in civil war.
c. In 1948, UN members approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
6. The Global North and South: Two Worlds of Development
a. The global North includes the industrial nations of Western Europe, North America, and Japan.
b. The global South refers to the developing world such as Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
c. The line between rich and poor is growing higher which leads to mass migration.
7. Economic Interdependence
a. Huge multinational corporations, enterprises with branches in many countries, have invested in the developing world.
b. Debtor nations had to agree to adopt free market policies, and many turned from socialism to privatization, selling off
state owned industries to private investors.
c. In 1973, a political crisis in the Middle East led the OPEC to halt oil exports and then raise oil prices.
8. Obstacles to Development
a. The answers vary from country to country, but many shared problems in five general areas: geography, population, economic
dependence, economic policies, and political instability.
b. The economic patterns established during the Age of Imperialism did not change after 1945.
c. Civil wars and other struggles prevented economic development.
9. Economic Development and the Environment
a. For both rich and poor nations, economic development has been achieved at great cost to the natural environment.
b. Gases from power plants and factories produced acid rain, a form of pollution in which toxic chemicals in the air comes
back to the Earth as rain.
c. In 1992, the UN sponsored the Conference on the Environment, or Earth Summit, in Rio, Brazil.
10. The Village Continuity and Change
a. Village people continue to form the largest part of the world’s population –about 3.3 billion of the 5.7 billion
people on earth
b. Many village ways have endured for centuries.
c. Supermarkets of the 21 century are threatening the ways of the old villagers.
11. Old Ways and New
a. In the western world, industrialization and urbanization began more than 200 years ago during the Industrial Revolution.
b. In the cities, many people adopted western fashions and ideas.
c. In Latin America, some Roman Christian clergy adopted a movement called liberation theology.
12. New Rights and Roles for Women
a. After 1945, women’s movements brought changes to both the western and developing worlds.
b. The UN Charter included a commitment to work for “equal rights for men and women.”
c. In the industrial world, more and more women worked outside the home and gradually won equal access to education.
13. Science and Technology
a. The computer is among the most revolutionary developments of the past 50 years
b. In October 1957, the space age began when the Soviet Union launched Sputnik into orbit.
c. Scientists applied new technology to increasing food production for the world’s growing population.
14. A New International Culture
a. Since WWI, American fads, fashions, music, and entertainment have captured the world’s imagination.
b. Global exchanges have influenced literature and visual arts for hundreds of years.
c. Global interest in the arts has made nations realize the value of ancient cultural treasures.
15. Looking Ahead
a. Current world conflicts and issues will have to be solved soon but won’t.
b. New conflicts will almost certainly take shape in the new millennium.
c. In many nations and regions, people must reconcile local and global interests.
16. The Cold war in Europe
a. The communist nations of Eastern Europe, dominated by the Soviet Union, formed the Warsaw Pact.
b. Berlin was divided between democratic West and communist East Berlin.
c. By the 1970s, American and Soviet leaders promoted an era of détente, or relaxation of tensions, but was set back when
the USSR invaded the Middle East.
17. Recovery and Growth in Western Europe
a. A major goal of leftist parties was to extend the welfare state.
b. In 1973, the West suffered an economic jolt when OPEC cut oil production and raised prives.
c. A service industry is one that provides a service rather than a product, which include health care, finance, sales, education,
18. Toward European Unity
a. In 1957, the same six nations signed a treaty to form the European Community, or Common Market, to expand free trade.
b. The European Union controlled 37 percent of the world’s trade
c. The EU was pushing for complete economic unity, a single currency, and greater political unity.
20. Social Trends
a. In Germany and elsewhere in Europe, “guest workers” from Turkey and the Middle East provided low wage labor
for booming economies.
b. By the 1950s, more and more people in the West belonged to the middle class.
c. Women began to take control of the workforce and help maintain the standards of living for their families.
21. Britain: Government and the Economy
a. Great Britain was left physically and economically battered and drained after World War II.
b. After the war, Britain adjusted to a new world role as their colonies shrank.
c. British soldiers were needed in Northern Ireland to keep the peace.
22. France: Revival and Prosperity
a. General Charles de Gaulle led the French during the war, and voters began to turn to him in the crisis.
b. In 1958, General Charles set up the Fifth Republic, which gave him great power as president.
c. Though General Charles wasn’t well liked when he resigned eleven years later, he helped bring France to the leadership
court in Europe.
23. Germany: Reunited at Last
a. No economic miracle was bestowed upon East Germany after the war.
b. In 1989, however, the wall was torn down, and Germany was reunified.
c. Germans welcomed unity, but change meant problems, such as tax related issues.
24. Other Democratic Nations of the West
a. Postwar Italy was economically divided; in the urban north, industries rebuilt and prospered but the rural south remained
b. Spain, Portugal, and Greece were changed as a result of the war as well.
c. Governments collapsed and turned to communism, causing civil war in Greece.
25. The United States and the Cold War
a. The United States built bases overseas that remained after the war.
b. Early in the Cold War, anti-communists in the United States warned against Soviet agents.
c. Many Americans were bitterly opposed to the Vietnam War, and didn’t want to support it.
26. Economy and the Role of Government
a. In the United States, as in Western Europe, government’s role in the economy grew.
b. Kennedy wanted to provide health care to the old but Reagan cutback on those expenses.
c. Government spending and tax cuts greatly increased the nation deficit, the gap between what a government spends and what
is takes in through taxes and other sources.
27. The Civil Right Movements
a. African Americans began to fight for equality under the law and against segregation.
b. Many Americans, both black and white, joined the Civil Rights Movement.
c. The civil rights movement inspired other groups, such as Native Americans, Hispanics, and women.
28. The United States and the Global Economy
a. In the postwar decades, the United States profited greatly from the growing global economy.
b. In the 1970s, OPEC price hikes fed inflation and showed how much Americans relied on imported oil.
c. Unlike the immigrants of the late 1800s and early 1900s, these newcomers came largely from Latin America and Asia.
29. Postwar Canada
a. Canada was a nation shaped by immigrants, just like the United States.
b. Canada enjoyed a postwar economic boom as well, due to rich deposits of oil and gas found in the western provinces.
c. Quebec wanted to be recognized as its own French-speaking nation.
30. Stalin’s Successors
a. Stalin returned from the prewar policies, bringing no goodness to the Soviet Union.
b. Brezhnev, the man who took over the Soviet Union from Khrushchev, began to suppress dissidents.
c. Dissidents are people who speak out against the government, such as critics.
31. The Soviet Economy
a. In 1957, the Soviets launched Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth.
b. Neither Khrushchev nor Brezhnev was able to solve basic Soviet economic problems.
c. Low output was due to inefficiencies in central economic planning.
32. Foreign Policy Issues
a. The Soviet Union, like the United States, supplied developing nations with military and economy aid.
b. A dangerous Cuban missile crisis was triggered when Khrushchev tried to build nuclear bases in Cuba.
c. Détente came to a sudden end when the Soviets invaded Afghanistan in 1979.
33. Collapse of the Soviet Empire
a. Gorbachev called for glasnost, or openness, in the Soviet Empire.
b. He also urged people to restructure the role of the government and the economy.
c. The economy in the Soviet Union was called perestroika.
34. The Russian Republic
a. Russians approved a new condition, but it didn’t bring and end to their problems.
b. Minorities stirred up trouble when they began to ask for greater independence and autonomy.
c. Russia reduced its nuclear stockpile, but remained a world power.
35. The Other Republics
a. Armenia was one republic that wanted to seize small neighboring countries.
b. The country of Georgia was torn apart by a bloody civil war.
c. Trade was increased and economic ties were made through help from the UN and the World Bank, among others.
36. In The Soviet Orbit
1. Communist leaders in Europe ended private ownership or businesses in lieu of central economic planning, just as Soviet
leaders had done.
2. The Soviet Union’s satellites became increasingly important as the unrest of the Cold War struck.
3. Joseph Tito refused to join the Warsaw Pact, claiming neutrality in the Cold War.
37. Poland’s Struggle Toward Democracy
1. Lech Walesa led an organized, independent trade union called Solidarity.
2. The communist government was further pressured by the strain of the world.
3. Gorbachev announced in the late 1980’s that he would refrain from interfering in Eastern Europe.
38. Revolution And Freedom
1. One by one, communist governments were ceased by problems and quickly fell.
2. Governments had to push radical economic reforms to attract western investment.
3. In the 1990’s, Eastern Europe wanted help from the West, as well as to join NATO.
39. War Comes To Sarajevo
1. After Tito died and communism fell, nationalism began to tear Yugoslavia apart.
2. Zlanta wrote in a diary about what happened, and eventually moved to Paris to escape the war.
3. Serbs, Muslims, and Croats began to persecute each other, and it turned to war.
40. Looking Ahead
1. The warring parties were brought to Dayton, Ohio, in 1995, where a series of agreements was made.
2. However, many agreements were unsatisfactory to Serbs, Muslims, and Croats alike.
3. When the Serb forces advanced, the United States and its European allies didn’t know whether or not to interfere.