Chapter 32 and 33 Study Guide
Terrorism – Terrorism is the deliberate use of random acts of violence, especially against civilians, to exact revenge
or achieves political goals.
Privatization – Debtor nations turned from socialism to privatization, selling off state-owned industries to private
Nonaligned – To avoid super power rivalry, many new nations chose to remain nonaligned, that is, not allied to either
side in the Cold War.
Multinational Corporation – Multinational Corporations, enterprises with branches in many countries, have invested in
the developing world.
Liberation theology – Liberation theology is the urge of the Church to take a more active role in opposing the social
conditions that contributed to poverty.
Interdependence – Interdependence is the dependence of countries on goods, resources, and knowledge from other parts
of the world.
Culture shock – The western ways and ideology took the world by storm especially after WWII and it set the fashion trends
and other ideals for the world.
Acid rain – Gases from power plants and factories produced acid rain, a form of pollution in which toxic chemicals in
the air come back to the earth as rain.
Effects of Cold War – The Cold War caused Korea and Vietnam to separate into divide nations, which turned into a war,
the Democratic versus the Communists.
Why did democracy fail in many new nations? Democracy failed in many new nations because their capitalist economies failed
and they turned to socialism.
Majority of world's wealth controlled by? – The majority of the world’s wealth is controlled by the global north
Effect of urbanization in developing nations – Urbanization caused over-population and created a number of slums, which
were in very poor conditions.
Factories effect on environmental damage – New factories caused huge quantities of pollution and is eating up the Earth’s
natural resources, which both are dangerous in the long run.
Factors contributing to political instability in African nations – Civil wars, military dictators, and insufficient
funds were all factors in creating instability in African nations.
Primary cause of global interdependence – Transportation and communications systems have made the world increasingly
Global South – The global south refers to the developing nations which included countries in Asia, Latin America, and
Modern technology – Technology has transformed life in the Western world, new ways of communication and transportation
spurred and caused may nations to become wealthier.
Welfare state – A major goal of leftist parties was to extend the welfare state-a government keeps most features of
a capitalist economy but takes greater responsibility for the social and economic needs of its people.
Glasnost – Gorbachev launched a two-pronged effort at reform after the fall of the USSR; he called the first glasnost,
Dissident – Breazhnev rigorously suppressed dissidents, people who spoke out against the government.
Deficit – Government spending and tax cuts greatly increased the national deficit, the gap between what a government
spends and makes.
Détente – American and Soviet leaders promoted an era of détente or relaxation of tensions after the Cold War.
Leonid - Leonid Brezhnev took over the Soviet Union and he rigorously suppressed people who spoke out against the government.
Brezhnev – Leonid Brezhnev took over the Soviet Union and he rigorously suppressed people who spoke out against the
Charles de Gaulle – In 1958, de Gaulle set up the Fifth Republic; its constitution gave him, as president, great power
Martin Luther King Jr. – Dr. King led many protests against the segregations between the whites and blacks in the United
Joseph McCarthy – McCarthy was an American senator who charged many Americans with harboring communist sympathies.
Margaret Thatcher – Led by Thatcher, the Conservative party denounced the welfare state as costly and inefficient and
called for an “”enterprise culture.”
Perestroika – Gorbachev urged the reconstructing of government and economy called perestroika as his second initiative.
Service industry – A service industry is one that provides a service rather than a product that include health care,
education, finance, and sales.
Mikhail Gorbachev – Gorbachev took power of the Russian government after the collapse of the USSR. He launched two-pronged
efforts at reforms, the first was glasnost and the second was called perestroika.
Helmut Kohl – West German chancellor Kohl was the architect of unity. He assured both the Soviet Union and the West
that a united Germany would pose not threat to peace.
Nikita Krushchev – Nikita was the Soviet Union dictator who tried at reforms but failed and was replaced by Brezhnev
after his death.
Josip Tito – Tito was a communist guerrilla leader who set up a communist government in Yugoslavia after WWII.
Lech Walesa - Walesa led an organized, independent trade union called Solidarity; the Polish government destroyed the Solidarityand
Walesa was arrested.
Reunification of Germany – In November, 1989, the Berlin Wall was taken down after 40 years of separation between the
Communist East and the Democratic West.
Goal of separatism in Quebec – Quebec wanted to be recognized as a separate country from the English dominated Canada
to keep their identities.
Result of central economic planning in the Soviet Union – The result of the economy of the USSR was drastic and the
economy went down hill until the Union collapsed.
Civil war in Yugoslavia – As communism diminished, nationalism began to tear Yugoslavia apart; the Serbs, Muslims, and
Croats began to persecute each other and form separate countries.